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23 Cards in this Set

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a life-threatening disorder caused by adrenal hormone insufficiency; precipitated by infection, trauma, stress or surgery; Death can occur from shock, vascular collapse, or hyperkalemia
addisonian crisis
hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones (gluco and mineralo-corticoids) from the adrenal gland, resulting in deficiency of the corticosteroid hormones; fatal if left untreated
Addison's disease
surgical removal of an adrenal gland; lifelong replacement of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids is needed if bilateral; temporary replacement if unilateral
adrenalectomy
a spasm of the facial muscles elicited by tapping on the facial nerve just anterior to the ear; noted in hypocalcemia
Chvostek's sign
a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally increased secretion (endogenous) of cortisol, caused by increased amounts of ACTH secreted by the pituitary gland
Cushing's disease
a metabolic disorder resulting from the chronic and excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex or by the administration of glucocorticoids in large doses for several weeks or longer (exogenous or iatrogenic)
Cushing's syndrome
a nocturnal release of growth hormone, which may cause blood glucose level elevations before breakfast in the client with diabetes mellitus; treatment includes administering an evening dose of intermediate-acting insulin @ 10pm
dawn phenomenon
the hyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland, resulting in failure of tubular reabsorption of water in the kidneys and diuresis
diabetes insipidus
a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that develops when a severe insulin deficiency occrs; progresses from hyperglycemia over a period of several hours to several days; may occur in clients w/ type 1 diabetes, person w/ undiagnosed diabetes, and persons who stop prescribed treatment for diabetes
diabetic ketoacidosis
a chronic disorder of glucose intolerance and impaired carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism caused by a deficiency of insulin or resistance to the action of insulin; deficiency of insulin results in hyperglycemia
diabetes mellitus
a condition resulting from the hypersecretion of glucocorticouds from the adrenal cortex
hypercortisolism
elevated blood glucose
hyperglycemia
extreme hyperglycemia w/o acidosis. complication of type 2 diabetes, which may result in dehydration or vascular collapse but does not include the acidosis component of diabetic ketoacidosis; usually slow onset, taking hours to days
hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome
a condition that occurs as a result of excessive thyroid hormone secretion
hyperthyroidism
low blood glucose level that results from too much insulin, not enough food, or excess activity (<60)
hypoglycemia
the removal of the pituitary gland
hypophysectomy
a hypothyroid state resulting from hyposecrtion of thyroid hormone. occurs in adulthood
hypothyroidism
the most severe form of hypothyroidism characterized by swelling of the hands, face, feet, and periorbital tissues, at thes stage the disease may lead to coma and death
myxedema
a rare but serious disorder that results from persistently low throid production. compa can be precipitated by acute illness, rapid withdrawal of throid medication, anesthesia and surgery, hypothermia, and the use of sedatives and opiod analgesics
myxedema coma
a rebound phenomenon that occurs in clients w/ type 1 diabetes mellitus. Normal or elevated BS are present @ HS; hypoglycemia occurs around 2-3 am. Counterregulatory hormones, produced to prevent further hypoglycemia(evident in pre-breakfast BS level). Treatment includes decreasing evening (predinner or bedtime) dose of intermediate-acting insulin or increasing HS snack
Somogyi phenomenon
surgical removal of thyroid gland to treat persistent hyperthyroidism or thyroid tumors
thyroidectomy
an acute, potentially fatal exacerbation of hyperthyroidism that may result from manipulation of the thyroid gland during surgery, severe infection, or stress
thyroid storm
a sign of hypocalcemia detected by carpal spasms elicited by compressing the brachial artery with a BP cuff for 3 minutes
Trousseau's sign