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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Covalent Bonds
atoms share electrons
polar-shared unequally
non-polar- electrons shared equally
pH, Acid vs Base, H+ concentration
Acid- 0-7
Base- 7-14
As the concentration of H+ increases, the pH decreases
Each number on the pH scale has a H+ concentration 10 times greater than the previous number.
which one is in human blood?
resists pH change
bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)
supply quick energy
formula C6H12O6
Disaccharides- formed by dehydration synthesis(results in formation of water)
examples- cellulose, starch, chitin, glycogen
breakdown of a compound; reverse of dehydration synthesis
Structure: one glycerol and three fatty acids
-energy storage
-major component of cell membrane
-endocrine:some lipids are hormones
Fatty Acid
hydrocarbon chain with carboxyl group at one end.
saturated- no double bondin carbon chain
unsaturated- double bond in carbon chain
polymers or polypeptides considting of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. 20 different ones.
Function:growth and repair (depends on shape)
Amino Acid
carboxyl group, amine group, and a variable attached to central carbon
Protein primary structure
sequence of amino acids
Protein secondary structure
hydrogen bonding between the molecules, beta-pletes and alpha-helix
Protein tertiary structure
3D shape of the protein
Protein quaterary structure
how several polypeptide chains interact with eachother
Nucleid Acids
polymers of nucleotides
DNA: adenine, cytosine, quanine, thymine
RNA: adenine, cytosine, quanine, uracil
phosphate, 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base
adenine, quanine
cytosine, thymine, uracil
-large proteins
-speed up reaction by lowering energy of activation
-when substrate enters active site it alters the shape of the enxyme slightly
-enzymes are not degraded during reaction and are reused
-function with assistance of cofactors(minerals) or coenzymes(vitamins)
misfolded protein, caises all the normal proteins to misfold in the same way
-no membrane-bound organeelles such as nuleus
-contains a single, circular chromosome
-ribosomes are small
-respiration can be either aerobic or anaerobic
-cytoskeleton elements, such as microfilaments, are absent
-most are unicellular
-most have tough external cell walls
-very small: 1-10 nanometers
-contain distinct organelles surrounded by membranes, such as nucleus and mitochondria
-chromosomes are wrapped with special proteins called histones
-ribosomes are large
-cytoskeleton elements, like microfilaments and microtubules, are present
-Some (like euglena and paramecium) are single celled; many are multicellular wuth specialiced cell types
-large: 10-100 nanometers
-most (except plant cells adn protists) are surrounded by only a cell membrane
Theory of endosymbiosis
eukaryotic cells containing organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts, evolved when free-living prokaryotes took up permanent residence inside other larger prokaryotic cells
adipose cell
fat cell
contains chromosomes, surrounded by nuclear envelope
proteins that chromatin wraps around to create chromatin network
inside nucleus
where ribosomes are synthesized
made of ribosomal RNA and proteins
-site of protein synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum
a system of membrane channels that traverse the cytoplasm
Rough ER: w/ ribosomes
-site of protein synthesis and transport throughout cytoplasm
Smooth ER: no ribosomes
-synthesixes steroid hormones and other lipids
-connects rough ER to the Golgi apparatus
-detoxifies the cell
-carbohydrate (glycogen) metabolism
Golgi Apparatus
lies near nucleus and consists of flattened sacs of membranes stacked next to each other and surrounded by vesicles
Function: modify, store, and package substances produced in the rough ER; secretes substances to other parts of cell and to the cell surface for export to other cells
sac of hydrolytic (digestive) enxymes enclosed by a singe membrane.
Function: intracellular digesstion
Not in plant cells
programed cell death
site of cellular respiratoin
Structure: outer double membrane and a series of inner membranes called CRISTAE
contain their own DNA and can self-replicate
folded inner membrane of mitochondria
Cell Wall
Not in animal cells
Fungi- chitin
Plants- cellulose
Middle lamella
thin, gluey layer between cell walls of daughter cells
keep the two cells attached
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
region between nucleus and plasma membrane
cytosol- semiliquid portion of cytoplasm
organells carried around cell as cytoplasm cycles
Cell or plasma membrane
-selectively permeable
-fluid mosaic: made of many particles that can move around
-Phospholipid bilayer with proteins dispersed throughout
-molecules of cholesterol are embedded within membrane to make leff fluid and more stable
-carbohydrates on outside for cell-to-cell recognition
Animal cells
-centrioles and centrosomes
-no chloroplasts and other plastids
-small vacuoles
-plasma membrane only
Plant cells
-no centrioles or centrosomes
-chloroplasts and other plasmids
-large central vacuoles
-cell walls in affition to plasma membrane
-no lysosomes
selectively permeable
the substances that pass through a selectively permeable membrane change with the needs of a cell
the substane that does the dissolving
the substance thst dissolves
having a greater concentration of solute than another solution
haing a lower concentration of solute than another solution
two solutions containing equal concentrations of solute.
Simple diffusion
the movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
Facilitated diffusion
relies on protein membrane channels to assist in transporting specific substances across a membrane
diffusion of water across a membrane
the shrinking of a cell
describes plant cells that are swollen due to excess intake of water.
active release of particles from a cell
cell engulfs small dissolved particles by invagination of plasma membrane creating a vacuole
the engulfing of large partocles or small organisms by pseudopods forming a vacuole
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
extra-cellular substances bind to specific receptors on the cell memnbrane and are drawn into the cell into cesicles
Sodium-potassium pump
in nerve cells
carries sodium (NA+)and potassium (K+) across the axon membrane to return the nerve to its resting state after an impulse has passed
removal of undigested waste
single, membrane-bound structures that store substances for the cell.
-contractile vacuoles pump water out of the cell
double membran efound only in plants and algae
-chloroplasts: site of photosynthesis
-leucoplasts: store starch, found in roots
-chromoplasts: store carotenoid pigments and are responsible for red-orange-yellow coloring
green becuase contain chlorophyll
-site of photosynthesis
-have an inner memnrane that forms a series of structures called GRANA
-grana lie in the stroma
-contain own nuclear material and can self-replicate
complex network of protein fillaments that ectends throughout the cytoplasm and gives the cell its shape and enables it to move
-Microtubules- thick hollow tubes that make up cilia, flagella, and spimcle fibers
-microfilaments-protein actin and help support the shape of cell
made of protein actin and help support the shape of the cell
-animal cells to form a cleavage furrow during cell division
Centrioles and Centrosomes
lie outside nuclear membrane and organize the spindle fibers for cell division
-two centrioles at right angles to each other, make up one centrosome
Centrioles and spindle fibers= 9 triplets of microtubules
Cilia and Flagella
Cilia= short and many
Flagella= long and many
structure: 9 pairs of microtubules around two single tubules (9+2)
Phase-contrast miroscope
light microscope that enhances contrast
useful with living, unstained cells
Electron microscopes
-transmission EM
-scanning EM
beam of electrons
over 100,000x magnification
Transmission EM:
-study interior of cells
-tissue not alive
-preparation of specinin is elaborate
-only small portion tissue sample can be studied at a time
Scanning EM:
-useful for studying surface cells
-3D image
ability to respond to a stimuli
Freeze fracturing/ freeze etching
study tissue using a cast of the original tissue
growth and repair of body cells
produces genetically identical daughter cells with the same chromosome number as the parent cell
occurs in sexually reporducing organisms
produces gametes with half the chromosome number of the parent cell
two sister chromatids coiled adn connected at the centromere
Cell cycle
5 stages:
-G1, S, G2 (which together are called interphase), mitosis, and cytokinesis
90 percent of life of cell
chromosomes replicate in preparation for cell division
1.nuclear envelope begins to disintegrate
2.strands of chromosomes begin to condense and become visible
3.nucleoli disappear
4.spindle fibers begin to form in the cytoplasm. extending from one centrosome to the other
1.chromosomes line up single file located in the equator of or metaphase plate
2.centrosomes are at opposite poles of the cell
3.spindle fibers run from centrosomes to the centromeres of the chromosomes
1.the centromeres of each chromosome separate, and spindle fibers pull the sister chromosomes apart
1.chromosomes cluster at opposite ends of the cell, and the nuclear membrane reforms
2.supercoiled chromosomes begin to unravel and to return to their pre-cell division condition as long, threadlike strands
3. the nuclear membrane reforms
Meiosis I
aka Reduction division
1.synapsis and crossing-over occurs.