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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cells that originate from bone marrow granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells?
bones of the skull, thorax and vertebral column make up ?
axial skeleton
bones of the upper and lower extremeties make up?
the appendicular skeleton
the humerous, ulna and radius come together to form what joint?
the elbow
Bone, cartilage and the hematopoietic system are considered to be what kind of tissue?
connective tissue
This vitamin regulates the calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood by promoting their absorption from food in the intestines, and by promoting re-absorption of calcium in the kidneys.
It promotes bone formation and mineralization and is essential in the development of an intact and strong skeleton.
It inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion from the parathyroid gland.
affects the immune system by promoting immunosuppression and anti-tumor activity.
vitamin D
vitamin that increases intestinal absorption of calcium and promotes ossification of bones and teeth?
vitamin D
the process of bone formation and mineral metabolism is complex and includes the interplay between the actions of 3 main hormones/vitamnins?
PTH, calcitonin and vitamin D
undifferentiated cells that differentiate into osteoblasts, that are found in the periosteum, endosteum and epiphyseal growth plate of growing bones?
osteogenic cells
bone-building cells that synthesize and secrete the organic matrix of bone, also participate in the calcification of the organic matrix
osteogenic cells differentiate into osteoblasts T/F?
true. pg 1359
a malignant cancer of cartilage?
a malignant cancer of bone?
the following are all tumors associated with the hematologic tissue except? myelocytic, multiple myeloma, lymphocytic leukemia, hemangiosarcoma, or meningeal sarcoma?
what are the three types of cartilage?
elastic, hyaline and fibrocartilage
what is the most abundant type of cartilage?
a chronic inflammatory disease that can virtually affect any organ system, including the musculoskeletal, and is know as the great imitator
SLE. systemic lupus erythematosus
a disease that appears to have B-cell hyperreactivity and increased production of antibodies against self and nonself antigens.
the most prevalent form of arthritis and is the leading cause of disability and pain in the elderly
the "wear and tear" arthritis, a slowly destructive disorder of the articular cartilage
a crystal-induced arthropathy, monosodium urate deposition is found in the joints and is actually a group of diseases known as what syndrome?
gout of the foot, but most specially the metatarsophalangeal joint of the big toe. In severe cases the metatarsal-phalangeal and tarsal joints are involved. At these sites there is swelling, redness, heat and tenderness.
chalky, gritty accumulations of uric acid crystals that build up in the soft tissue of a gouty joint, often occurring in the elbow or the joints of fingers or toes. They develop if underlying syndrome is not treated for an extended period of time.
an aberrant immune response that leads to synovial inflammation and destruction of the joint architecture.
a characteristic development of an extensive network of new blood vessels in the synovial membrane that contributes to the advancement of rheumatoid synovitis is a destructive vascular granulation tissue called?
pannus. it differentiates RA from other types of arthritis.
which certain molecule may predispose to RA by their capacity to bind arthritogenic antigens, which in turn activate T cells and initiate the dz?
HLA-DR. Human Leukocyte Antigen
partial flexion of the DIP with hyperextention of the PIP is called?
swan neck deformity
flexion of the PIP joint with hyperextention of the DIP is called?
boutonniere deformity
what is the first line of pharmacologic tx for RA?
nsaids. then dmards pg. 1422
most commonly occuring signs and symptoms of SLE?
arthralgia and arthritis. but articular destruction is rarely found.
what are some musculoskeletal manifestations of SLE?
tenosynovitis, rupture of the intrapatellar and achilles tendons and avascular necrosis.
with this syndrome, there are joint changes, which include a progressive loss of articular cartilage and synovitis?
osteoarthiritis syndrome
what are some adverse side effects of NSAID's?
gastric irritation and bleeding, fluid retention, kidney damage
a dramatic increase of what organelle occurs in skeletal muscle that is repeatedly stimulated to contract?
a hormone released from the adrenal medulla that produces a decrease in insulin release and an increase in glucagon, HR, contractility...
catecholamines (norepi,epi)
this hormone stimulates ACTH release from anterior pituitary and increases activity of neurons in locus ceruleus
CRF; corticotropin-releasing factor
this hormone stimulates the synthesis and release of cortisol?
ACTH from the adrenal cortex
this hormone increases sodium absorption by the kidneys?
aldosterone (a mineralcorticoid hormone)
a hormone that increases water absorption by the kidney; produces vasoconstriction of blood vessels and stimulates the release of ACTH?
ADH, vasopression (antidiuretic hormones) from hypothalamus and posterior pituitary
the nasal passages, mouth and pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles make up?
the conducting airways
what type of cells line the conducting airways?
pseudostratified columnar epthelium that contain a mosaic of mucus-secreting goblet cells with cilia
in addition to their gas exchange function, what other functions do the lungs perform?
inactivate vasoactive substances such as bradykinin, they convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II and they serve as a resovoir for blood storage.
what type of cells line the respiratory bronchioles?
simple pseudostratified epithelium
what type of cells are the alveolar type I cells?
flat squamous epithelial cells across which gas exchange take place
what do alveolar type II cells do?
produce surfactant; a lipoportein substance that decreases the surface tension in the alveoli
what makes up the blood supply to the lungs?
a unique dual blood supply: the pulmonary and bronchial circulations
which circulation distributes blood to the conducting airways and supporting structures of the lungs?
the bronchial circulation. additionally it warms and humidifies incoming air
where does the bronchial circulation arise from ?
the thorascic aorta and enter the lungs with the major bronchi
these chemoreceptors are found in the carotid and aortic bodies and they monitor arterial blood oxygen levels; stimulated by hypoxia
peripheral receptors
these receptors are found in the chemosensitive regions near the respiratory center in the medualla; stimulated by Co2
central receptors
P presents c angina of acute onset, and pain worsens on inspiration but is alleviated upon sitting up and leaning forward. upon PE you hear a friction rub along the L sternal border. what is the most likely dx?
beck's triad is indicitive of which dx?
acute cardiac tamponade
this term is used to describe an inflammation of the heart muscle and conduction system with out evidence of an MI?