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41 Cards in this Set

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Also known as the intruduction, this part of ta story gives basic background on characters, plot and setting. Exposition "sets the cenene.": Any device or description that helps to intrudce a narrative may be reffered to as an expository element. Dickens's "it was the best of times, it wa th worst of times," is a famous bit of expostions that helps to set the scoial background for "A Tale oF Two Citites.
Rising Action
Also known as compl;icaiton, this part of a the stoy develops conflict, a necessity for any narrative: if there is no conflict, then there is no sotry. Gernally, the main types of conlfict indulce the folloiwing: human vds. environment ("Joe lost his job because of the recession"_, human vs. Human ("Joe punched his goss in the gut"), and human vs. self ("Joe felt guilty for punching his boss in the guyt")
The climax of a story is sometimes called its "high point" or "point of no reutrn." Here, something occurs to alter forever the story's main progression. In sShakespeare;s Romeo and Juliet, the tomb scneene whwnere the misguided lovers kill themselves, is a classic example of climaz.
Falling Action
Also known as a reversaapl, faling caction speeds the story to its end. As the term implies falling action is a fdecent, a result of the climaxz's forceful influcence. ("After joe died [Climax!] from the grief of punching his boss, everyone in the office assembled at Joe's desk to rembmerber him fondlu"
Also known as the conflucion, the denouement gives the sotry closure.
qPlot is the adtion of the sotry, the sequence of events that creats a cause/effect pattern. In the story sample. tyhe plot is as follows: a woman is impatiently waiting to corss a stree; she finally does so, afgainst the lights; an errant moped knockes her down.
this is a characvter whose function it is to emphasize the personality traits of some other character. In a qay, the moped rider stresses, Regina's impatience or her rebelliouness against the "Don't Walk" sign.
: Athis is a protagonist with villainous qualities; Regina wouldn't work, but Satan from Milton's Paradise Lost mades a good anti-hero.
tone is determiend by diction and syntax.
A metaphor is an image of comparison

ex. "The sun is a pizza in the sky.
A similie is a comparison using like or as.

ex. Eating Zack's outmeal was like slathering wet bardboard on your tongue.

Grandma's tietoeing was as subtle as an elehpant's.
This device makes an inanimate object sound as if it is human

ex. AS reginald started at the diamonds, greed whispered sweet nothigns in his ear. (Grreed is personifieed because whispering is a human action

MUST BE HUMAN ("howling" may make something sound like a wolf, but not like a person)
related to personification, apostrophe is a speaker's direct address to either A) a nonhuman entity, or b) an absent human.
This term is a fancy way of saying "exageration"
In metonymy, a larger whole - usualy an abstract - is represented by one of its parts.

ex. The tine star was the one thing that honest people of Carson City revered.

(Here, although they revered the cop, the author refers to his badge: thus metonymy).
Related to metonymy, synecdoche usually occurs when a part represents a specfict, a tangible whole, rather than an abstract (the inverse of metonymy)

ex. "Who is ready for recess?" asked Mrs. Gimble. Hands flew in the air. (Hands did not actually fly in the air, they were attached to kids, they are the specific part which refers to the greater).
An allusion is a reference to something outside the qwritten work. Most allusions refer either to general literature, classical mythology, or the Bible.
One of the most common of literary devices, irony falls in to three categories: verbal, situational, and dramatic. In every case, there is some unexpected but fitting twist to be discoverd.

If someone looks like shit and someone elses goes "oo you look good" they are being verbally ironic
Diction is a term relating to word choice
This term relates to phrasing, the way words are put together in a sentence or series of sentences. consider te familiar sentence patterns below:
THis term indicates that two or more items share a similar constuction or treatment in a literary work. Two of the msot basic types of parallelism are grammatical and thematic.

ex. My favorite activities are tying shoes, licking stamps, and coutring danger.
Thematic Parallel
In this instance, what is paralleleed in a work is a pair of similar situations or ideas.
A common literaty device found on the Lit test, antithessi is a pairing of opposites to make a point. Alexandrer pope tells us that man is: "In doubt to demm himself a god, or beast/ In doubt his mind or body to prefer/ Born but to die, and reasoning but to err." These lines are rife with antithesis: "god" as being high creatino paired with "beast," one of the lowest; "mind" as a governor of logic is matched with "body," governor of passion. Furthermore, "born" is paired with "die" and "reasoning" with "err." The point of all these opposites is that man is a creature caugght in the middle of creation, a blend of opposies and contradictions. q
Rhetorical QUestion
A narrator usies this type of questions to emphasize a point. During a test, a teacher might have notyiced a student copyuing from you. If the teacher addressses the person with the question,"Just what do you think you're dsoing." she doesn't really need an answser.
Alliteration is repretition of a sound at the begining of wqords
Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds within words. Ex The petite clerk meekly ate the bee (the long e sound in the line emphasizews the smallness of the subject and the action.
This device refers to the repetition of consonant sounds within words

ex. Tony's fingertips tuped at the cpomputer until dawn. (The repeated t in the lines mimics the contact between Tony's fingers and the keys.)
This device is a term referring to words which imitate the sound they represent.
the rhypthmn of a poem. need to know IAMBIC PENTAMETER. AN iamb is a metrical foot of two syllables, with the accent on the second syllable. The similar sounding words Mary and Marie both have two syllables, but Marie is a the iamb: accent on second syllable. Pentameter has a greek root penta, meaning "five." Thus,in iambic pentameter, there are five iambs to a line:
Heroic couplets
couplets (an AA rymhe scheme) that follow iambic pentameter
has 14 lines of imabic pentameter and features a specific rympe scheme. It is a serioous, usually discursive poem that compacts a unified idea into a small space. The Lit test often featues one sonnnet in its passages.
Blank Verse
This type of poetry featurs unrhymed iambic pentameter.

It is often used by renaissance playwrights such as Skaespeare and survives all the wya up into the 20th century, where poets like Robert Frost dabble in it.
Sprung Rhythm
This tuype of poetry featurs a variety of set meters and a complex rhyme scheme.
Free Verse
This type of poetry has no regualr rhyme schmeme or meter
An ode praises someone or something still in existence.
An elegy honors somone dead.
A ballad is a narrative poem, sually with a tragicomic tone, Its stanzass tend to be four lines long, with an ABCBDEFE
Concrete Poetry piece of iction, a poem simpluy tells a sotyr
This genre, sometimes called emblematice poetry, forms its words into pictures on the page. The point is that the picture has something to do with the poem's theme.
narrative mode
occasionally, as with a a piece of fiction, a poem simply tells a sotry
discursive mode
many times the lit test will feautre this type of poem, because the discursive mode expounds on a topic: it is an "idea" poem. Several questions about theme and the way structure develops theme can be drecieved fro mthis kindof word.
ONe problem that occurs in both ryming verse and blank verse, hwoever, is the sue of anastrophe, or inversion of a sentence to better suit ryme scheme and metrical rymal rhthm