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98 Cards in this Set

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Atoms combine in chemical reactions to form ______.
molecules
TRUE OR FALSE: Molecules can react with other atoms or molecules to form larger molecules.
TRUE
Compound molecule
a molecule that contains different types of atoms
element
a molecule containing a single type of atom
In chemical reactions, the molecules or atoms that are interacting are called _____.
reactants
The results of chemical interactions between molecules or atoms are called ______.
products
organic chemistry
chemistry of molecules and compounds that contain carbon
organic molecules/compounds
molecules or compounds containing carbon
inorganic molecules/compounds
not containing carbon
what is the only exception to a compound that has carbon but is not an organic compound?
CO2
Organic or inorganic: water
inorganic
Compound or not: CI2
not a compound
Compound or not: H2O
is a compound
Organic or inorganic: Methane (CH4)
organic
Molecule or not: CI2
molecule
Organic or inorganic: CO2
inorganic
Four important types of organic molecules are also referred to as _____.
macromolecules
The four important organic molecules:
proteins
carbohydrates
lipids
nucleic acids
Polymers
strings of repeaded monomers.

Polymer: whole sting of pears
Monomer: each pearl
Proteins are polymers of _____.
amino acids
There are ___ (#) different amino acids.
20
Each amino acid has a basic backbone structure consisting of which to groups.
Amino group and carboxyl group
O
ll
C ----OH
carboxyl group
H
l
NH2---C
amino group
what makes each amino acid different?
the R part-- changes in different amino acids
What process takes place in order for amino acids to combine to form proteins?
dheydration synthesis
what is the new bond between the amino acids after they are joined together called?
peptide bond
why can a protein be referred to as a polypeptide?
Its amino acids are all held together by peptide bonds
function of a protein depends on its _____.
shape
the monomer for a carbohydrate is _________.
a saccharide
saccharides refers to ______.
sweetness
carbohydrates are essentially ___ molecules
sugar
Carbohydrates have a common factor: they are made only of __, ___, and ____.
carbon
oxygen
hydrogen
A single saccharide can be called a ________ even though it is just a monomer.
carbohydrate
monosaccharides are made of a _______.
1) single saccharide
In monosaccharides, Cs, Hs, and Os exist in a ratio of _____
1:2:1 (respectively)
What are the two main monosaccharides?
Glucose and Fructose
What is the difference between fructose and glucose?
glucose- double-bonded oxygen located on top carbon
Fructose- located 2nd C from top
Which monosaccaride can form a ring structure, glucose or fructose?
glucose
What is the chemical formula for Glucose and Fructose?
C6 H12 O6
disaccharide
two monosaccharides linked together
what are the two main disaccharides?
maltose and sucrose
Maltose formed from ____.
two molecules of glucose through dehydration synthesis
sucrose formed from ____.
molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose through dehydration synthesis
what is the formula of sucrose and maltose?
C12 H22 O11
polysaccharides
more than two monosaccharides joined together
what are the three main polysaccarides?
glycogen
starch
cellulose
what is the monomer of Glycogen?
glucose
what is the monomer of starch?
glucose
what is the monomer of cellulose?
glucose
How are glycogen, starch and cellulose different?
the way the glucose molecules are linked together.
function of glycogen:
form in which animals (including humans) store glucose
function of starch:
form which plants store glucose
function of cellulose:
structural polysaccharide that forms the plant's cell walls
Lipids are basically ____
fats
monomer for a lipid is ______
hydrocarbon
hydrocarbon
carbon with two hydrogens bonded to it
hydrocarbons can link together to form long chains that are ________ (hydrophobic, hydrophilic)
hydrophobic
Why does water and oil separate when together in a glass?
oil is a lipid and lipids are hydrophobic
what is another term for hydrophobic?
nonpolar
Whate are the three most common forms in which lipids are found in the body?
triglycerides
phospholipids
cholesterol
What do Triglycerides consist of?
three fatty acids (tri)
one glycerol (glyc)
What does a fatty acid consist of?
a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at one end
What is a glycerol molecule? what does it consist of?
glycerol molecule is an alcohol, that has three carbon atoms
most fats we eat are in the form of ____.
Triglycerides
most fats that our body stores is in the form of _______.
Triglycerides
phospholipds are like triglycerides, except that ______ is replaced with _____.
one fatty acid chain is replaced with a phosphate group
phosphate groups are ____ (hydrophilic, hydrophobic)
hydrophilic
phosphate groups are _____ (polar, nonpolar)
polar
The head of the phospholipid is _____ (hydrophilic, hydrophobic)
hydrophilic
the tail or fatty acids of the phospholipid is (hydrophobic, hydrophilic)
hydrophobic
lipid bilayer
the double layer of phospholipds where tails are in and heads are out
Cholesterol is a _____.
lipid
cholesterol is made up of _____.
hydrocarbon rings
Where is cholesterol found?
in animal cell membranes and animal blood and tissue
what is the function of cholesterol?
build and maintain cell membranes
produce steriods
what disease is cholesterol most commonly related to?
cardiovascular diseases
lipids in general are ____ (hydrophobic, hydrophilic)
hydrophobic
steroid hormones ____ (are, are not) hydrophobic
are
What are nucleic acids?
acidic macromolecules found in the nucleus of the cell
what are the two main nucleic acids?
RNA and DNA
what is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
nucleotide
what is a nucleotide made up of?
sugar, phosphate, base
What are the four possible nucleotide bases fo DNA?
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Thymine
What three scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize for discovering the double-helix structure of DNA molecules?
James Watson
frances Crick
Maurice Willimas
What scientist produced x-ray photograph of DNA which helped other scientists discover DNA's double helix?
Rosalind Franklin
TRUE OR FALSE: Polynucleotide = DNA
TRUE
Adenine and ___ will bond only with each other.
thymine
Guanine and ___ will bond only with each other.
Cytosine
What type of bond holds base pairs in DNA together?
hydrogen bond
to hold base pairs A-T together, ____ hydrogen bonds are needed.
2
to hold base pairs G-C together, ____ hydrogen bonds are needed.
3
Which base pair is stronger?
G-C b/c they have three hydrogen bonds holding them together
What is the biggest difference between RNA and DNA?
RNA is single stranded
DNA is double stranded
RNA doesn't use _____ instead it uses _____
doesn't use THYMINE
uses URACIL
what does uracil pair with?
adenine
What is the sugar of RNA?
ribose
What is the sugar of DNA?
deoxribose