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146 Cards in this Set

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Abiotic factors
nonliving factors in an ecosystem. They include: temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil
Abscisic acid (ABA)
plant hormone that inhibits growth
Acoelmate
An animal that has no true coelom (Flatworms)
Actin
Protein that makes up the thin myofilaments in skeletal muscle
Active transport
Movement of particles against a gradient, from low concentration to high concentration. Requires expenditure of energy
Adventitious roots
roots that arise above ground; exapmles are aerial roots and prop roots
Agonistic behavior
aggressive behavior
Alcohol fermentation
process by which certain cells converty pyruvic acid or pyruvate from glycolysis into ethyl alcohol and CO2 in the absence of oxygen
Allantois
Extra embryonic membrane in bird's egg. It exchanges respiratory gases to and from the embryo
Alleles
Alternate forms of a gene. (ex. There are 2 alleles for height in pea plants, tall and dwarf)
Alveolus (aveoli)
Microscopic air sacs in the lung where diffusion of the respiratory gases, oxygen and CO2 occurs
Amnion
Membrane that encloses the embryo in protective amniotic fluid
Amylase
Enzyme that digests starch
Analogous structures
Structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function but not the same underlying structure. The similarity is merely superficial and reflects adaptation to a similar environment. Analogous structures are NOT evidence of a common origin or common ancestry
Aneuploidy
Any abnormal condition of the chromosomes
Angiosperms
Anthophyta or flowering plants
Anion
a negative ion
Antennae/ accessory pigments
molecules that assist in photosynthesis by capturing and passing on photons of light to chlorophyll a and expanding the range of light that can be used to produce sugar
Anther
Male part of flower where sperm (pollen) is produced by meiosis. Sits atop filament
Antheridia
structures located on the tips of a gametophyte plant and that produce sperm
Antibodies
Immunoglobins. Part of the third line of defense, the specific immune response. Each antibody molecule is a Y-shaped molecule consisting of 4 polypeptide chains
Anticodon
the three-nucleotide sequence associated with tRNA
Antigens
anything that triggers and antibody response
Apoptosis
programmed cell death
Archaeopteryx
an intermediate fossil that shows both reptile and bird characteristics
Archegonia
structures located on the tips of a gametophyte plant and that produce eggs
Associative learning
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked to another through experience
ATP
adenosine triphosphate

special high-energy molecule that stores energy for immediate use in the cell
ATP synthase
structure in membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts wehre ATP is formed
Autonomic nervous system
part of the nervous system that controls automatic functions, such as heart and breathing rate
Autosomes
Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes. humans normally have 44 in each body cell
Autotrophs
organisms that make their own food
Auxins
growth hormones in plants that are responsible for phototropisms and apical dominance, the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun) rather than laterally
Backcross
Testcross. A technque to determine whether an individual plant or amenimal showing the dominant trait is homozygous dominant (BB) or heterozygous (Bb)
Bacterial transformation
the ability of bacteria to alter their genetic makeup by uptaking foreign DNA from another bacterial cell and incorporating it into their own. Discovered by scientist named Griffith
Base-pair substitution
a mutation where one nucleotide is substituted fro a correct one in the DNA strand
Bicarbonate ion
the most important buffer in human blood. it is responsible for keeping the pH of blood at 7.4
Bile
chemical produced in the liver and released from the gall bladder that emulsifies fats. it is not an enzyme
Binomial nomenclature
System of taxonomy that we use today, developed by Carl von Linne. In this system every organism has a two-part name, like Homo sapiens
Biological magnification
Organisms at higher trophic levels have a greater concentration of accumulated toxins stored in their bodies than those at lower trophic levels
Biosphere
the global ecosystem
Biotechnology
the branch of science that uses recombinant DNA techniques for practical purposes, also called genetic engineering
Biotic factor
includes all the organisms with which an organism might react in an ecosystem
Biotic potential
The maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
Bottleneck effect
natural disasters such as fire, earthquake, and flood reduce the size of a population non selectively, resulting in a loss of genetic variation. The resulting population is much smaller and not representative of the original one. Certain alleles may be under or overrepresented compared with the original population
Budding
Splitting off of new individuals from existing ones. How reproduction occurs in hydra
Buffers
Chemicals that resist a change in pH
C-4 photosynthesis
modification for dry environments. C-4 plants exhibit modified anatomy and biochemical pathways, which enable them to minimize excessive water loss and maximize sugar production
Calvin cycle
cyclical process that produces sugar. it occurs during the light-independent reactions
CAM
Crassulacean acid metabolism. a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation for dry conditions. These plants keep their stomates closed during the day and open at night, the reverse of how most plants behave
Carbon fixation
incorporation of CO2 into a sugar (RuBP) occurs during the cyclical process of the Calvin cy
Cardiac sphincter
band of muscle at the top of the stomach that keeps acidified food in the stomach from backing up into the esophagus and burning it
Carotenoids
Photosynthetic antennae pigments. they are orange and yellow
Carpel
female part of the flower, produce the female gametophytes, ova. Each carpel consists of an ovary stigma, and style. Also called the pistil
Carrying capacity (K)
Limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
Cation
positively charged ion
Centrioles
responsible for division of the cytoplasm in animal cells; they are not present in plant cells. They consist of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged in a circle
Centromere
Specialized region of a chromosome that holds two sister chromatids together
Centrosome
consist of two centrioles at right angles to each other. Important during cell division in animal cells
Chemiosmosis
How ATP is produced during oxidative phosphorylation. Protons only flow through teh special ATP synthetase channels and transfer energy to molecules of ATP
Chitin
a polysaccharide that makes up the exoskeleton of insects and the cell walls of fungi
Chloroplasts
Type of plastid that carries out photosynthesis
Chorion
membrane that lies under the shell of an egg and allows for diffusion of respiratory gases between the outside environment and the inside of the shell
Chromatin network
DNA in the nucleus that is wrapped with special proteins called histones into a visible network
Chromoplasts
type of plastid that stores pigments that are responsible for the bright colors in fruit and flowers
Classical conditioning
type of associative learning. Pavlov trained dogs to associate the sound of a bell with food. The result of this conditioning was that dogs would salivate upon merely hearing the sound of the bell even though no food was present
Cleavage
rapid mitotic cell division of the zygote that begins immediately after fertilization
Cnidocytes
cells that house the stingers in cnidarians
Codominance
an inheritance pattern where both traits show at once. In humans, a person who has 2 different genes for blood type, A and B, has type AB blood
Codon
the three-nucleotide sequence associated with mRNA
Coelomate
an animal that has a true coelom or body cavity. All chordates are coelomates
Coenzymes
vitamins that assist in the normal functioning of enzymes
Coevolution
the mutual evolutionary set of adaptations of two interacting species
Cofactors
minerals that assist in the normal functioning of enzymes
Cohesion tension
the attraction of like molecules tho stick together. Water molecules tend to stick together because they exhibit strong cohesion tension
Collenchyma cells
plant cells that have unevenly thickened cell walls but lack secondary cell walls. The strings of celery consist of collenchyma cells
Colon
large intestine
Commensalism
Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and one is not affected by the other organism (+/o)
Community
consists of all the organisms living in one area
Companion cells
make up phloem vessels, along with sieve tube elements
Conjugation
a primitive form of sexual reproduction where individuals exchange genetic material
Continental drift
the theory that states that the continents are floating and moving very slowly. Over millions of years, seven separate continents formed from one original continent, Pangea
Contractile vacuole
structure found in freshwater protista, like paramecia and amoeba, that pumps out excess water that diffuses inward because the organisms lie in an environment that is hypotonic
Convergent evolution
type of evolution where unrelated species occupying the same environment and subjected to similar selective pressures show similar adaptations. Example: the whale (mammal) and the fish
Cortex
specialized region in a plant root or stem for storage and support
Cotyledon
food for the growing embryo in a dicot seed. The cells that make up the cotyledon are triploid (3n)
Covalent bonds
bonds formed between atoms where electrons are shared
CAM
crassulacean acid metabolism: a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation for dry conditions. These plants keep their stomates closed during the day and open at night, the reverse of how most plants behave
Cristae
series of inner membranes in mitochondria where cell respiration occurs
Crop
structure in birds, insects, and earthworms, among others, for temporary storage of food
Crossing-over
a normal process in which homologous chromatids exchange genetic material. Crossover is important because it increases variation in the gametes.
Cutin
Waxy coating on the leaves that helps prevent excess water loss from the plant
Cyclosis
movement of cytoplasm around the cell
cystic fibrosis
the most common lethal genetic disease in US. 1 out of 25 caucasians is a carrier, characterized by build0up of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
Cytochromes
protiens that play a key role in ETC in mitochondria and chloroplasts
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm. in animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms down the middle of the cell as the cytoplasm pinches inward and the two daughter cells separate from each other. In plant cells, a cell plate forms down the middle of the cell
Cytokinins
Plant hormones that stimulate cell division and cytokinesis
cytoplasm
region between the nucleus and plasma membrane
Cytosol
Semiliquid portion of the cytoplasm
Decomposer
organisms that play a vital role in the ecosystem and that recycle dead organic matter (bacteria and fungi)
Dehydration synthesis
also known as synthesis. Process by which molecules are bonded together to form a larger molecule with the removal of water
Deletion
A mutation where a piece of a gene or chromosome is lost
Denature
Characteristic of proteins; a change in shape that stops the protein from functioning
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; the heritable material passed from parent to offspring
Diastole
relaxation of the ventricles of the heart. Normal diastolic pressure is 120mm Hg
Dicotyledon
plant whose seed easily breaks in two
Diffusion
The flow of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. There are 2 types: simple and facilitated
Digestion
Enzymatic breakdown, hydrolysis of food so it is small enough to be assimilated into the body
Dipeptide
a molecule consisting of two amino acids
Directional selection
changing environmental conditions give rise to this type of natural selection. One phenotype replaces another in the gene pool
Disruptive selection
this type of natural selection increases the numbers of extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
Divergent Evolution
occurs when a population becomes isolated from the rest of the species and becomes exposed to new selective pressures, causing it to evolve into a new species. Homologous structures are evidence of divergent evolution
DNA polymerase
the enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of the new DNA strands during replication
Domain
Kindom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
Duodenum
The first 10 inches of small intestine. Where all digestion is compelted
Ecosystem
includes all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which the interact
Ectoderm
the outermost layer of an embryo, which develops into skin and nervous system
Ectotherm
an animal, such as fish, amphibian, or reptile, that must use environmental energy or behavioral adaptations to its body temperature, cold-blooded
Egestion
removal of metabolic waste
ETC
electron transport chain: series of molecules within the cristae membrane of mitochondria that provides the energy to phosphorylate ADP into ATP during oxidative phosphorylation
Endoderm
the innermost layer of an embryo, which develops into the viscera or the digestive system
Divergent Evolution
occurs when a population becomes isolated from the rest of the species and becomes exposed to new selective pressures, causing it to evolve into a new species. Homologous structures are evidence of divergent evolution
DNA polymerase
the enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of the new DNA strands during replication
Domain
Kindom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
Duodenum
The first 10 inches of small intestine. Where all digestion is compelted
Ecosystem
includes all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which the interact
Ectoderm
the outermost layer of an embryo, which develops into skin and nervous system
Ectotherm
an animal, such as fish, amphibian, or reptile, that must use environmental energy or behavioral adaptations to its body temperature, cold-blooded
Egestion
removal of metabolic waste
ETC
electron transport chain: series of molecules within the cristae membrane of mitochondria that provides the energy to phosphorylate ADP into ATP during oxidative phosphorylation
Endoderm
the innermost layer of an embryo, which develops into the viscera or the digestive system
Endoplasmic Reticulum
system of transport channels within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell
Endosperm
Food for the growing embryo in a monocot seed. The cells that make up the endosperm are the triploid (3n)
Endotherm
an animal that uses metabolic energy to maintain constant body temperature; warm-blooded
Energy of activation
the amount of energy required to start a reaction
Eohippus
A transition fossil that demonstrates that the ancient horse is an ancestor of the modern horse, Equus
Epicotyl
Part of the embryo in a seed that becomes the upper part of the stem and leaves
Epididymis
Part of testes where sperm become motile
Epiglottis
flap of cartilage in the back of the throat that directs food to the esophagus
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells
Ethylene
Gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening
Eukaryotes
Cells that contain internal membranes
Excited state
when an atom absorbs energy, its electrons move to a higher energy level
Excretion
removal of metabolic wastes
exocytosis
the release of substances from a cell
Exons
expressed sequences of DNA. DNA that codes for particular polypeptides