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390 Cards in this Set

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fundamental units of the physical world, composed of + protons, = neutrons, and - electrons
atom
a combination of atoms, can be a compound or element
molecules
molecule with different types of atoms
compound
molecule with only one type of atom
element
what goes in to a chemical reaction, left side of yield sign
reactants
what comes out of a chemical reaction, right side of yield sign
products
compound which contains carbon and hydrogen
organic compound
compound which does not contain carbon and hydrogen
inorganic compound
a "string" of monomers
polymers
the basic unit of a polymer, a polymer is made up of many of these
monomers
monomers of proteins, 20 different kinds
amino acids
the NH2 group in an amino acid
amino group
a carbon atom is bonded to an oxygen (in carboxyl)
double bond
the COOH group
carboxyl group
polymer of amino acids
protein
the bond between amino acids
peptide bond
water is removed & molecules are joined
dehydration synthesis
another name for a protein
polypeptide
reverse of dehydration synthesis, water added and molecules seperated
hydrolysis
monomer of carbohydrate
saccharide
a single saccharide
monosaccharide
a monosaccharide with the double-bonded oxygen located on the top carbon, chemical formula C612O6
glucose
a monosaccharide with the double-bounded oxygen located on the second carbon from the top, chemical forumula C6H12O6
fructose
two saccarides
disaccharide
a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules, chemical formula C12H22O11
maltose
a disaccharide consisting of fructose and glucose, chemical forumula C12H22O11
sucrose
three or more saccarides
polysaccharide
a polysaccharide consisting of glucose molecules; the form in which animals store glucose
glycogen
a polysaccharide consisting of glucose molecules; the form in which plants store glucose
starch
a polysaccharide consisting of glucose molecules; forms the plant's cell walls
cellulose
monomer of a lipid, a chain of these is a fatty acid
hydrocarbon
means that a molecule (like a fatty acid) does not interact well with water
hydrophobic
another term for hydrophobic
nonpolar
consist of three fatty acids and a glycerol
triglycerides
consist of two fatty acids, a glycerol, and a phosphate group
phospholipids
hydrocarbons form rings, found only in animal cells, all steriod hormones are synthesized from this lipid
cholesterol
means a molecule (like a phosphate) can interact with water
hydrophilic
another word for hydrophilli
polar
a double layer of phospholipids
lipid bilayer
a polynucleotide consisting of the bases adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a polynucleotide consisting of the bases adenine, uracil, guanine and cytosine.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
the monomer of a nucleic acid
nucleotide
another name for nucleic acids
polynucleotides
nucleotide base that always pairs with thymine.
adenine
nucleotide base that always pairs with cytosine
guanine
the pancreatic islet cells secret _____
and ________.
insulin; glucagon
the ovaries secrete ______ and ________.
estrogen; progesterone
the anterior pituitary gland secretes these 6 hormones:
TSH, growth hormone, FSH, prolactin, LH, ACTH
the thyroid secretes _______ and ________.
thyroxine; calcitonin
the adrenal cortex secretes ______ and
______.
cortisol; aldosterone
the posterior pituitary secretes ______
and _______.
oxytocin; ADH
the adrenal medulla secretes ________
and _______.
norepinephrine; epinephrine (adrenaline)
the testes secrete ______.
testosterone
the parathyroid gland secretes __________.
parathromone
the target organ for estrogen / progesterone
uterus
the target organ for ACTH
adrenal cortex
the target organ for aldosterone
kidneys
epinephrine / norepinephrine target
all the cells in the body
the target organ for prolactin
mammary glands
the target organ for glucagon
liver
parathormone targets:
bones
LH / FSH targets:
ovaries and testies
insulin targets :
all cells in the body
oxytocin targets:
uterus
growth hormone targets:
all cells in the body
testosterone targets:
male body
cortisol targets:
all cells in the body
ADH targets:
the kidneys
TSH targets:
thyroid gland
thyroxine targets:
all cells in the body
calcitonin targets:
the bones
the effect of estrogen
maintains female sex characteristics, builds uterine lining
the effect of ACTH
causes release of hormones from adrenal cortex
the effect of aldosterone
causes kidneys to retain sodium
the effect of epinephrine/ norepinephrine
prolongs and enhances "fight or flight" response
prolactin
production of breast milk
glucagon
breakdown of glycogen, increases blood glucose levels
parathormone
breaks down bone, increases blood calcium
LH
releases testosterone in male, forms corpus luteum in the female
insulin
allows cells to take up glucose, decreases blood glucose levels
oxytocin
contract uterus, releases breast milk
growth hormone
growth of the body
testosterone
maintains male sex characteristics
cortisol
causes gluconeogeniesis, increases blood glucose levels
ADH
causes kidney to retain water
TSH
causes thyroid glan to relase thyroxine
thyroxine
increases body metabolism
FSH
causes spermatogenesis in males, oogenesis in females
progesterone
maintains and enhances uterine lining
calcitonin
builds bone, decreases blood calcium
B-cells make
antibodies
Hemoglobin contians ____ and can bind to ____.
iron; oxygen
T cells are ____ blood cells
white
blood cells involved in clotting
platlets
the genotype(s) for blood type O
ii
the genotype(s) for blood type A
IAi, IAIA
the genotype(s) for blood type B
IBi, IBIB
the genotype(s) for blood type AB
IAIB
universal donor
blood type o
blood vessels that return blood to the heart
veins
bloods vessels that carrey blood away from the heart
arteries
________ return excess tissue fluid to the blood vessels.
lymphatic vessels
the blood in the pulmonary artery is oxygen _____
poor
the blood in the pulmonary vein is oxygen ____
rich
_______ are the site of exchange between blood and tissues
capillaries
nucleotide base that always pairs with guanine
cytosine
nucleotide base that always pairs with adenine, found only in DNA
thymine
twisted ladder shap of double stranded DNA
double helix
the bonding of a nucleotide base with its partner
base pairing
two strands of DNA that can form base pairs with each other are ________.
complementary
the type of bond that holds the base pairs together
hydrogen bond
nucleotide base that complements adenine, found only in RNA
uracil
who discovered the double-helix shape of DNA?
James Watson and Francis Crick
If a particular base sequence in DNA is Adenine-Guanine-Cytosine, then the complementary strants has the base sequence:
thymine-cytosine-guanine
A nucleotide is made of:
a phosphate, sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a nitrogenous base
location of cellular respiration in prokaryotes
cytoplasm
end produce of anaerobic metabolism in muscle cells
lactic acid
location of glycolysis in eukaryotes
cytoplasm
state of meiosis during which recombination of genetic material occurs
prophase I
stage of meiosis during which sister chromatids are seperated
anaphase II
stage of meiosis during which pairs of homologous chromosomes align at the center of the cell
metaphase I
a simple kind of learning involving loss of sensitivity to unimportant stimuli
habituation
geese recognize a ticking clock as "mother" if exposed to it during a critical period shortly after hatching
imprinting
fish are given food at the same time as a tap on their glass bowl and soon learn to approach when a tap sounds even in the absence of food
classical conditioning
structure in the alimentary canal where most digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs
small intestine
sturcture in the alimentary canal where starch digestion first takes place
mouth
structure in the alimentary canal with the lowest pH
stomach
homologous structures which have similar underlying structures but may have different functions are formed by:
divergent evolution
heomoglobin has a (high/low) oxygen affinity and a (high/low) carbon dioxide affinity in the lungs and a high/low) oxygen affinity and a (high/low) carbon dioxide in the tissues
high; low; low; high
the simplest organisms containing one cell are:
unicellular
more complex organisms made of many cells are:
multicellular
the outermost layer of a cell in plants, bacteria, and fungi
cell wall
the semipermeable outer layer of a cell
cell membrane
the semifluid goo that contains the cells organelles
cytoplasm
structures floating in the cytoplasm, perform various tasks
organelles
bounded by nuclear membrane, contains chromosomes
nucleus
contain geneitc material of the cell (DNA)
chromosomes
photosynthetic organisms with cell walls made of cellulose
plants
plant cell walls are made of this polysaccharide
cellulose
unicellular organisms with cell walls made of peptidoglycan
bacteria
bacterial cell walls are made of this, made of protein and sugar
peptidoglycan
decomposers with cell walls made of chitin
fungi
fungal cell walls are made of this polysaccharide similar to cellulose
chitin
another word for water, the inside of the cell is this
aqueous
the primary lipids found in cell membranes
phospholipids
the cell membrane lets some things through and restricts the passage of other things
selectively permeable
the movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration
diffusion
the movement of hydrophillic substances across a membrane aided by protein channels down their concentration gradients
facilitated diffusion
the movement of a substance against its concentration gradient with the help of membrane proteins; recquires energy (ATP)
active transport
the movement of large items across a membrane
bulk transport
bulk transport into a cell, particle engulfed
endocytosis
bulk transport out of a cell
exocytosis
a pocket form by endocy
vesicle
the movement off water across a cell membrane down its concentration, water "follows" the solute
osmosis
a concentrated solution
hypertonic
a dilute solution
hypotonic
a solution the same concentration as the cell itself
isotonic
cell with membrane bound organelles and a nucleus
eukaryotic
cell without membrane bound organelles or a nucleus
prokaryotic
organelle used in the storage of wastes and other material
vacuole
sites of preotein synthesis, not bound by a membrane
ribosome
system of membrane and tubes that transports substances around the cell
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
system of membrane and tubes with ribsomes bound to it which synthesize membrane and/or secreted proteins
rough endoplasmic reticulum
function in cellular respirtaion; produce ATP for the cell; bounded by a double membrane
mitochondria
organelles that digest foreign substances and worn-out organelles
lysosomes
sorts and packages proteins made by ribosomes on rough ER
Golgi apparatus
help to form spindle during mitosis
centrioles
control center of the cell; contains genetic material (DNA); bound by a double membrane
Nucleus
Small, dense structure in the nucleus, site of ribosome synthesis
Nucleolus
Outer membrane that regulates what comes into and goes out of the cell
Cell Membrane
organic catalyst made of protein
enzyme
compounds that speed up chemical reactions
catalyst
the place where reactants bind to an enzyme
active sites
reactants in an enzyme-catalyzed reactions
substrates
when an enzyme looses its shape and can no longer run reactions
denatured
molecules that help enzymes
coenzymes
coenzymes, you get them from your diet
vitamins
the purpose of cellular respiration is to produce energy in the form of:
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
adenosine bonded to 3 phosphate molecules
to break the bond between the second and third phosphate molecules on ATP to release energy
hydrolyze
what remains after ATP is hydrolyzed
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
(and one molecule of phosphate)
reactants of cellular respiration
glucose + oxygen
products of cellular respiration
carbon dioxide + water + ATP
location of glycolysis
substrates for glycolysis
products of glycolysis
cytoplasm
glucose, 2 ATP
2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH
location of PDC (Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex)
substrates for PDC
prodcuts of PDC
Matrix of mitochondria
pyruvate
Acetyl-CoA, NADH, CO2
location of Krebs cycle
substrates for Krebs cycle
products of Kreps cycle
matrix of mitochondira
Acetyl-CoA, oxaloacetic acid
3 NADH, 1 ATP, 1 FADH2, CO2 & oxaloacetic acid
location of electron transport/ oxidative phosphorylation
subsrates for electron transport
products of electron transport
inner membrane of mitochondria
NADH, FADH2, ADP, P
NAD, FAD, ATP
glycolysis is an (aerobic/anaerobic) process
anaerobic
most of the energy produced from cellular respiration is stored as electrons on special molecules called:
electron carriers, such as NAD and FAD
when an empty electron carrier accepts a pari of electrons
reduced
when an electron carrier gives up its electrons
oxidized
when one molecules of glucose is split in half to produce to molecules of pyruvate
glycolysis
half a glucose molecule, product of Glycolysis
pyruvate
a process that occurs without oxygen is said to be:
anaerobic
a process that requires oxygen is said to be:
aerobic
a group of enzymes that prepare pyruvate to enter the Krebs cycle
pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)
the remaining to carbon structure resulting from PDC ie attached to this
coenzyme A
sometimes known as the citric acid cycle, third step in cellular respiration
Krebs Cycle
the purpose of this final step in cellular respiration is to oxidize the electron carriers and use the energy from those electrons to make ATP
electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
oxygen is known as this because it is the last molecule in the electron transport chain
final electron acceptor
the method of getting ions across the inner membrane of the mitochondria is provided by this special protein
ATP synthase
cellular respiration produces about this many ATP for each molecule of glucose thats broken down
36
regenerating empty electron carriers in the abscence of oxygen by oxidizing NADH and reducing pyruvate
fermentation
yeast reduced pyruvate to this in fermentation
ethanol
in human muscle cells, pyruvate is reduced to this by fermentation
lactic acid
number of ATP produced by fermentation
2
an enzyme that lines up nucleotides
DNA polymerase
DNA acts as a _______ for the formation of a new complementary strand
template
a body cell, contains 46 chromosomes
somatic
similar but not exactly the same
homologous
chromosomes that code for the same gene but each one is from a different parent, they are similar but not exactly the same
homologous pair
cells that have two sets of chromosomes are said to be:
diploid
the portions of DNA that carry instructions
genes
DNA --> RNA
transcription
RNA --> Protein
translation
Enzyme that creates a complementary strand of RNA during transcription
RNA Polymerase
three type of RNA
mRNA = messenger RNA
tRNA = transfer RNA
rRNA = ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that carries information for protein synthesis
mRNA
type of RNA that carries amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes during protein synthesis
tRNA
type of RNA that interacts with the cell's ribosomes to make them functional, catalyzes protein synthesis
rRNA
a sequence of 3 nucleotides that corresponds to one amino acid
codon
the dictionary for protein translation
Genetic Code
codons are read in a(n) [overlapping/nonoverlapping] sequence
nonoverlapping
start codon
AUG
stop codon
UAA, UGA, UAG
a special region on the tRNA molecule that can base pair with codon on mRNA. it must be complementary to a codon to base-pair with it
anticodon
where mRNA binds to ribosomes
P-site and A-site
when a stop codon appears in the _-site the protein is relased from the ribosome
A
cell replication, form new somatic cells
mitosis
the tiem during which chromosomes replicate and the cell carries out all of its normal activites
interphase
identical "chromosomes" attached at a centromere
sister chromatids
centrioles move away from each other to opposite sides of the cell, spindle formed, chromosomes condense and nuclear membrane breaks up
prophase
fibers formed during prophase
mitotic spindle
chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell known as the metaphase plate
metaphase
chromatids seperate and are pulled by spindle to opposite poles
anaphase
the area where the cell pinches inward during mitosis
clevade furrow
a nuclear membrane forms in each new cell and two daughter cells result
telophase
division of cytoplasm
cytokinesis
each gene corresponds to a single protein
one-gene-one-protein theory
sex cells
gametes
cell has only one set of chromosomes
haploid
formation of sex cells
meiosis
recombination of genetic material during prophase 1, homologous chromosomes pair up
synapsis
homologous pair with each chromosome cointaining 2 chromatids
tetrad
when synapsis occurs, longest phase of meiosis
prophase I
segments on homologous chromosomes are exchanged, increases variation
crossing over
because there are no homologous pairs, the cells undergoing meiosis are considered ______ by telophase I
haploid
essentially similar to mitosis but end product is 4 haploid cells
meiosis II
formation of sperm and ova
gametogenesis
formation of sperm by meiosis
spermatogenesis
diploid cell from which sperm are created
spermatagonium
location of spermatagonia, located in the testes
seminiferous tubules
formation of female egg cells, results in polar bodies and an ova
oogenesis
female egg cell
ova
initial cell in oogenesis
primary oocyte
two daughter cells from oogenesis that disintegrate
polar bodies
nonliving, as in the physical environment
abiotic
the process by which water and dissolved substances pass throught a membrane
absorption
a transmitter substance released from the axons of nerve cells at the synapse
acetylcholine
protective immunity to a disease in which the individual produces antibodies as a result of previous exposure to the antigen
active immunity
a behavioral or biological change that enables an organism to adjust to its environment
adaptation
the production of a number of different species from a single ancestral species
adaptive radiation
energy storage molecules (ATP,ADP)
adenosine phosphate
a hormone that regulates water reabsorption, produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary
ADH (vasopressin)
adipose
fatty tissue,fat-storing tissue, or fat with-in cells
the outer part of the adrenal gland that secretes many hormones, includign cortisone and aldosterone
adrenal cortex
an "emergency" hormone stimulated by anger or fear; increases blood pressure and heart rate in order to supply the emergency needs of the muscles
adrenaline (epinephrine)
secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce its characteristic hormones
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
an organism that requires oxygen for respiration and can only live in the presence of oxygen
aerobe
requiring free oxygen form the atmosphere for normal activity and respiration
aerobic
hormone active in osmoregulation; a mineral corticoid produced by the adrenal cortex; stimulates the reabsorption of sodium and potasium ions
aldosterone
an organ centrally involved in the human digestive system
alimentary canal
the extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and mammals that serves as an area of gaseous exchange and as a site for the storage of noxious excretion products
allantois
one of two or more types of genes, each representing a particular traits; many may exist for a specific gen locus
alleles
the description of a plant life cycle that consists of a diploid, asexual, sporophyte generation and a haploid, sexual, gametophyte generation
alternation of generations
an air sac in the lung; the site of respiratory exchange, involving diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the alveolus and the blood in the capillaries
alveolus
(plural = alveoli)
the extraembryonic membrane in birds, reptiles, and mammals that surrounds the embryo, forming an amniotic sac
amnion
movement involving flowing of cytoplasm in pseudopods
amoeboid movement
an organism that does nto require free oxygen in order to respire
anaerobe
living or active in the absence of free oxygen; pertaining to respiration that is independent of oxygen
anaerobic
describes structures that have similar funcion but different evolutionary origens
analogous
the stage in mitosis that is characterized by the migration of chromatids to opposite ends of the cell; the stage in meiosis during which homologous pairs migrate (I) and the stage in meiosis during which chromatids migrate to different ends of the cell (II)
anaphase
androgen
a male sex hormone
plant that produces seeds enclosed in an ovary and is characterized by the possesion of fruits and flowers
angiosperm
the phylum to which segmented worms belond
Annelida
the part of the plant male reproductive system (stamen) that produces and stores pollen
anther
an antipathogenic substance
antibiotic
globular proteins produced by tissues that destroy or inactivate antigens
antibodies
a foreign protein that stimulates the production of antibodies when introduced into the body of an organism
antigen
the largest artery; carries blood from the left ventricle
aorta
blood vessels located between ascending and descendin aortas thaat deliver blood to most of the upper body
aortic arch
a structure that extends from the trunk of an organism and is capable of active movement
appendage
fluid in the eye, found between the cornea and the lens
aqueous humor
a class of arthropods that includes scorpions, spiders
Arachnida
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
artery
the phylum to which jointed-legged invertebrates belong, including insects, arachnids, and srustaceans
Arthropoda
the production of daughter cells by means other than the sexual union of gametes
asexual reproduction
the conversion of digested foods and other materials into forms usable by the body
assimilation
the type of mating that occurs when an organism selects amating partner that resembles itself
assortative mating
the thin-walled anterior chamber of the heart
atrium
self-ddigesion occuring in plant and animal tissues after they have ceased to function properly
autolysis
the part of he nervous system that regulates he involuntary muscles, includes sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
autosomal
an organism that utilizes the engergy of inorganic materials such as water and carbon dioxide or the sun to manufacture orgainc materials
autotroph
a plant growth hormone
auxin
a nerve fiber
axon
bacteria that are rod shaped
bacillus
a type of virus that can destroy bacteria by infecting parasitizing, and eventually killing them
bacteriophage
an emulsifying agent secreted by the liver
bile
compound in bile that aid in emulsification
bile salts
asexual reproduction; in this prodcess, the parent organism splits into two equal daughter cells
binary fission
the system of namin an organism by its genus and species names
binomial nomenclature
a habit zones, such as desert, grassland, and tundra
biome
living
biotic
a stage of embryonic development in which the embryo consists of hollow ball of cells
blastula
part of the nephron in the kidney involved in excretion
Bowman's Capsule
in plants, an area of undifferentiated tissue covered by embryonic leaves
bud
a process of asexual reproduction in which the offspring develop from an outgrowth of the plant or animal
budding
a substance that prevents appreciable changes in pH solutions to which small quantities of acids or bases are added
buffer
a unit of heat the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one centigrage
calorie
cycle in photosynthesis that reduces fixed carbon to carbohydrates through the addition of electrons, occurs in the stroma
Calvin cycle
undifferentiated tissue in the stem of a plant that aids growth in width
cambium
a tube one cell thick that carries blood from artery to vein; the site of material exchange between blood and tissues in the body
capillary
a bony or chitinous case or shield covering the back or part of the back of an animal
carapace
an organic compound to which hydrogen and oxygen are attached; the hydrogen and oxygen are in a 2:1 ratio
carbohydrate
the recycling of carbon from decaying organisms for use in future generations
carbon cycle
a flesh-eating animal, a holotrophic animal that subsists on other animals or parts of animals
carnivore
an orange plant pigment that is the precursor of Vitamin A
carotene
an ion with a positive charge, or an ion that migrates towards the cathode (negative electrode) in an electric feild
cation
a wall composed of cellulose that is external to the cell membrane in plants; it is primarily involved in support and in the maintenance of proper internal pressure
cell wall
in mitosis of higher plants, the structure that forms between the divided nuclei of the two daughter cells and eventually becomes the cell wall
cell plate
encompasses the brain and the spinal cord
central nervous system (CNS)
the small granular body within the centrosome to which the spindle fibers attach
centriole
the place of attachment of the mitotic fiber to the chromosome
centromere
a structure in animal cells containing centrioles from which the spindle fibers develop
centrosome
pertaining to the head
cephalic
the hind brain region that controls equilibrium and muscular coordination
cerebellum
the outer layer of cerebral hemispheres in the fore brain, consisting of gray matter
cerebral cortex
one of the paired lateral divisions of the fore brain
cerebral hemisphere
the largest portion of the human brain; its is believed to be the center of intelligence, conscious thought, and sensation
cerebrum
the process by which carbohydrates are formed through chemical energy; found in bacteria
chemosynthesis
the orientation of cells or organisms in relation to chemical stimuli; the growth or movement of organisms to chemical stimuli
chemotropism
a white or colorless, amorphous, horny substance that forms part of the outer integument of insects, crustaceans, and some other invertebrates; it also occurs in certain fungi
chitin
a green pigment that performs essential functions as an electron donor and light "entrapper" in photosynthesis
chlorophyll
a plastid containing chlorophyll
chloroplast
an animal phylum in which all members have a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, and pharyngeal gill slits at some embryonic stage; includes Cephalochordata and the Vertebrates
Chrodata
the outermost, extra-embryonic membrane of reptiles and birds
chorion
one of two stands that constitute a chromosome; held together by the centromere
chromatids
a nuclear protein of chromosomes that stains readily
chromatin
a short, stubby rod consisting of chromatin that is found in the nucleus of cells; contains the genetic or hereditary component of cells (in the form of genes)
chromosome
partially digested food in the stomach
chyme
daily cycles of behavior
circadian rythems
the division in animal cell cytoplasm caused by the pinching in of the cell membrane
cleavage
the stable, biotic part of the ecosystem in which populations exist in balance with each other and with the environment
climax community
the coagulation of blood caused by the rupture of platelets and the interaction of fibrin, fibrinogen, thrombin, prothrombin, and calcium ions
clotting
the chamber in the alimentary canal of certain vertebrates located below the large intestine, into which the ureter and reproductive organs empty (as in frogs)
cloaca
the sensory organ of the inner ear of mammals; it is coiled and contains the organ of Corti
cochlea
the state in which two genetic traits are fully expresses and neither dominates
codominant
an invertebrate animal phylum in which animals posses a single alimentary opening and tentacles with stinging cells (ex: jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and hydra)
Coelenterata (Cnidarians)
the space between the mesodermal layers that forms the body cavity of some animal phyla
coelom
an organic cofactor required for enzyme activity
coenzyme
the large intestine
colon
describes an organism that lives symbiotically with a host this host neither benefits nor suffers from the association
commensal
the association of a physical, visceral response with an environmental stimulus which is not naturally associated, a learned respones
conditioning
a cell in the retina that is sensitive to colors and is responsible for color vision
cone
organism that consumes food from outside itself instead or producing (primary, secondary, or tertiary)
consumer
a specialized structure that controls osmotic pressure by removing water from the cell; exists in protozoans
contractile vacuole
the outer, transparent layer of the eye
cornea
a tract of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
a remnant of follicle after ovulation that secretes the hormone progesterone
corpus luteum
in plants, the tissue between the epidermis and the vascular cylinder in the roots and stems of plants; in animals, the outer tissue of some organs
cortex
a hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex
cortisone
a "seed leaf"; responsible for food digestion and storage in a plant embryo
cotyledon
a thyroid deficiency that results in stunted growth and feeblemindedness
cretinism
the exchange of parts of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
crossing over
the pollination of the pistil of one flower with pollen from the stamen of a different flower of the same species
cross-pollination
a large class of arthropods including crabs and lobsters
Crustacea
a waxy protective layer secreted by the outer surface of plants, insects, etc.
cuticle
a hydrogen carrier containing iron that functions in many cellular processes, including respiration
cytochrome
a process by which the cytoplasm and the organelles of the cell divide; the final stage of mitosis
cytokinesis
the cell body of a neuron
cyton
the living matter of a cell, located between the cell membrane and the nucleus
cytoplasm
the organelle that provides mechanical support and carries out motility functions for the cell
cytoskeleton
a nitrogen base that is present in nucleotides and nucleic acids; it is paired with guanine
cytosine
the removal of an amino group from and organism, particularly an amino acid
deamination
the loss of all or part of a chromosome
deletion
a small, local population
deme
the part of the neuron that transmits impulses to the cell body
dendrite
a five carbon sugar that has one oxygen atom less than ribose; a component of DNA
deoxyribose
the passive, rhythmical expansion or dilation of the cavities of the hear that allows these organs to fill with blood; preceded and followed by systole
diastole
a plants that has two see leaves
dicotyledon