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35 Cards in this Set

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Macrophage
Phagocytosis;interleukin 1 that stimulates secretion of interleukin 2 by helper T cells and induces proliferation of B cells
Killer T cell
Lysis of foreign cells by lymphotoxins & release of various lymphokines that recruit & intensify killer T cell actions
Helper T cell
Cooperates w/B cells to amplify antibody production by plasma cells & secrete interleukin 2, which stimulates proliferation of killer T cells
Suppressor T cell
Inhibits secretion of injurious substances by killer T cells & inhibits antibody production by plasma cells
Delayed hypersensitivity T cell
Secretes macrophage activating factor and migration inhibition factor, key substances related to hypersensitivity (allergy)
Amplifier T cell
Stimulates helper T cells, suppressor T cells, and B cells to exaggerated levels of activity
Memory T cell
Remains in lymphoid tissue & recognizes original invading antigens, even years after infection
Natural killer (NK) cell
Lymphocyte that destroys foreign cells by lysis and produces interferon
B cell
Differentiates into antibody-producing plasma cell
Plasma cell
Descendant of B cell that produces antibodies
Memory B cell
Ready to respond more rapidly and forcefully than initially should the same antigen challenge the body in the future
Naturally acquired active immunity
Antigen recogniation by B cells & T cells & costimulation lead to antibody-secreting plasma cells, cytotoxic T cells, & B & T memory cells
Naturally acquired passive immunity
Transfer of IgG antibodies from mother to fetus across placenta, or of IgA antibodies from mother to baby in mild during breast-feeding
Artificially acquired active immunity
Antigens introduced furing a vaccination stimulate cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses, leading to production of memory cells. The antigens are pretreated to be immunogenic but not pathogenic; that is, they will trigger an immune response but not cause significant illness
Artivicially acquired passive immunity
Intravenous injection of immunoglobulins
List some examples of non-specific resistance
Intact skin
Mucous membranes
Mucus
Hairs
Cilia
Lacrimal apparatus
Saliva
Epiglottis
Urine
Gastric juice
Acid pH of skin
Unsaturated fatty acids
Lysozyme
List the skin & mucous membranes
Intact skin
Mucous membranes
Mucus
Hairs
Cilia
List the Nonspecific resistance Chemical factors
Gastric juice
Acid pH of skin
Unsaturated fatty acids
Lysozyme
List the Antimicrobial substances
Interferon IFN
Complement
Properdin
Phagocytosis
Inflamation
Fever
Antibody
Protein produced in the blood of vertebrates following exposure to an antigen
Only IgG is able to cross the placenta to provide maternal innunity
True
IgM & IgG are typically produced sequentially in response to microparasitic infections
True
Antigen
A protein, typically foreign, that elicits a specific immune response
Endemic
Levels of infection which do not exhibit wide fluctuations through time in a defined place
Stable endemicity is where the incidence of infection or disease shows no secular trend for increase or decrease
True
Endemic fadeout
Parasite extinction occurring because endemic levels are so low that is is possile for small stochastic fluctuations to remove all parasites.
Epidemic fadeout
Parasite extinction occurring because nubers are so low immediately following an epidemic that isis possible for small stochastic fluctuations to remove all parasites.
Herd Immunity
Remainder of population is immune, so transmission is reduced.
Immunity
1. State in which a host is not susceptible to infection or disease or 2. the michanisms by which this is achieved.
Immunity is achieved by an individual through 3 routes: Natural/innate, Acquired after contact, artificial after a vaccination.
True
Artificial immunity is also referred to as specific immunity, resistance, or specific resistance.
True
Specific immunity has two divisions: Cellular & humoral
True
Specific/cellular immunity is acting via the direct involvement of T cells
True
Humoral immunity involves antibodies & B cells
True
Humoral immunity involves antibodies & B cells
True