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81 Cards in this Set

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A branch of microbiology which deals with an organism's ability to ward off or defend itself against disease.
Immunology
Name the 2 types of immunity.
Innate
&
Acquired
That immunity with which an organism is born. It can come from Antigens (Ag).
Innate Immunity
That immunity which is built up after birth by either catching an infections disease or immunization.
Acquired Immunity
Two types of immunization?
Antigen (Ag) - active immunization
&
Antibodies - Globulins (Ab)
Name the 2 types of immune response.
Non-specific
&
Specific
Immune response that is not directed to a particular infections agent e.g. HCL or lysosomes.
Non-Specific Immune Response
Immune response directed against specific agents or organisms (viruses are not organisms).
Specific Immune Response
Unique basal receptor differentiating self from non-self.
Major Histo Compatability
MHC
The complex of a macrophage hooked up with a non-self body.
Antigen Presenting Complex
(APC)
Which cells hold the key to setting up a specific immune response?
T Cells
Short range specific immune response.
Cell Mediated Immunity
(CMI)

Cell Mediated Immune Response
(CMIR)

T(c) contacts pathogen
&
destroys it.
Long-range specific immune response.
Humoral Mediated Immunity
(HMI)
or
Humoral Mediated Immune Response
(HMIR)
or perhaps
Antibody Mediated Immunity
(AMI)
What secretes antibodies?
plasma cells
where do plasma cells come from?
plasma cells are B Cells that stop dividing.
Do antibodies destroy the agents to which they attach?
No, they act as a cap, marking the agent for destruction by other cells.
What is the time required for the Primary Immune Response?
Secondary Immune Response?
Primary: ~5 days

Secondary: ~2 days
Who is the father of Immunology & Vaccination?
Edward Jenner
What is the purpose of immunization?
Raise specific immunity

helps the body develope memory cells
An antigen that produces a reaction but no immunity.
Allergen
Four types of hypersensitivity?
Type I: allergies, anaphylaxis
Type II: transfusion reaction
Type III: serum sickness
Type IV: contact dermatitis,
infections, transplant rejection
a purified preparation of tuberculin used in a test for tuberculous infection
Purified Protien Derivative
an intradermal test for hypersensitivity to tuberculin that indicates past or present infection with tubercle bacilli
mantoux test
An exaggerated or inappropriate immune response.
Hypersensitivity
The 2 stages of hypersensitivity?
1. sensitization stage

2. hypersensitivity reaction
Sometimes immunity works to eliminate the Antigen (Ag) but inappropriately.
Hypersensitivity

Autoimmune Disease
Immunoglobuline (IgE) bound on the surface of mast cells.
Type I Hypersensitivity
Inflammation
Smth mscl contraction: airway constriction
Smth mscl contraction: GI tract
Smth mscl contraction: vessels
Type I Hypersensitivity
First exposure to antigen in which IgE produced.
Sensitization
(Type 1 Hypersensitivity)
Second or any subsequent exposure to antigen (Ag) after sensitization.
Triggering
(Type I Hypersensitivity)
Localized Type I hypersensitivity reactions are also called?
atopic reactions
or
allergies
Urticaria, hives, wheals
histamine activity is blocked by anti-histamine
Localized Type I hypersensitivity
Systemic release of histamine & other mediators

Extensive blood vessel dilation

Decreased organ perfusion

BP drops dramatically -- shock

Fatal in minutes

Bee Venom, penicillin (hapten)
Anaphylaxis - rare & serious

Type I Hypersensitivity
Response to cellular antigen
- foriegn antigen
- haptens (some druge bind to RBCs)

Mechanisms
- cytotoxic
- cytoloctic
Type II Hypersensitivity
Transfusion Reaction
Type II Hypersensitivity
Hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Mother must be Rh-
Baby always Rh+
Type II Hypersensitivity
How are children affectd by hemolytic disease?
First child: rarely affected

Second child: can be affected

Third child: badly affected
Immune complex formation.
Generalized reaction is serum sickness
- disseminated intravascular coagulation
- fever
- lymphadenopathy
Type III Hypersensitivity
Occurs anywhere in the body
Mantoux test
Contact dermatitis (poison ivy, oak)
Infections disease (leprosy, TB)
Transplant rejection
Type IV Hypersensitivity
Disease that occurs when recognition of self breaks down.
Autoimmune disease
muscle weakness resulting from immune complexes blocking receptors at the neuromuscular junctions. Also causes upper eye droop.
Myasthenia Gravis
Penetrating would in one eye produces blindness in the healthy eye.

Type IV hypersensitivity
Sympathetic Ophthalmia

If damage is result of infection
this does not occur.
Ingestion of antigen induces tolerance
Feeding tolerance

Rheumatoid arthritis - collagen

Multiple Sclerosis - myelin basic protein

(these are autoimmune diseases)
Body cannot make or sustain an adequate immune response
Immunodeficiency

Primary - congenital

Secondary - acquired
Multiple myeloma, malnutrition,
lymphoid malignancies, leukemia,
Hodgkin's diseas,
AIDS
Secodary Autoimmune Diseases
(acquired)
introduction into the body of any liquid not obtained from any other species. e.g. saline.
infusion
Introduction in 1 area & remove from another (via circulatory system).
Rarely done
Perfusion
introduce fluid into the body from dame or another species
transfusion
What determines blood's type?
the type of antigen on the RBC surface
The study of something that afflicts (affects) a population.
Epidemiology
These epidemiologists study community origins of health problems, particularly those relating to nutrition, environment, human behavior, & the psychological, social, & spiritual state of the population.
Classical Epidemiologists
These epidemiologists study patients in health care settings in order to improve the diagnosis & treatment of various diseases & the prognosis for patients already affected by a disease.
Clinical Epidemiologists
Another name for clinical epidemiology.
clinical decision analysis
Risk factors & preventable causes of diseases.
"BEINGS"
B - Boilogic & Behavioral factors
E - Environmental factors
I - Immunological factors
N - Nutritional factors
G - Genetic factors
S - Services, Social, & Spiritual factors
Crude Birth Rate
Number of Live Births
-------------------------- x 1000
Mid-period population

(defined place & time period)
Crude Death Rate
Number of deaths
------------------------ x 1000
Mid-period population

(defined place & time period)
Age-Specific Death Rate
Number of deaths to people
in a particular age group
------------------------------ x 1000
Mid-period population

same age group, place, & time period
Cause-specific death rate
Number of deaths due
to a particular cause
------------------------ x 1000
Mid-period population

(same place & time period)
Infant Mortality Rate
Number of deaths to infants
under 1 year of age
-------------------------------- x 1000
Number of Live Births

(same place & time period)
Neonatal Mortality Rate
Number of deaths to infants
under 28 days of age
-------------------------------- x 1000
Number of Live Births

(same place & time period)
Post-Neonatal Mortality Rate
Number of deaths to infants
between 28 & 365 days of age
----------------------------------- x 1000
# live births - # neonatal deaths

(same place & time period)
Approximate post-neonatal mortality rate
Infant Mortality Rate -
Neonatal Mortality rate

IMR - NMR

(same place & time period)
Perinatal mortality rate
Perinatal = infants under 7 days of age

# stillbirths + # perinatal deaths
----------------------------------- x 1000
# stillbirths + # live births

(same place & time period)
Maternal Mortality Rate
# pregnancy related deaths
------------------------------ x 100,000
# live births

(same place & time period)
Cell Mediated Immune Response:
Short term specific immune reaction to a specific pathogen wherein activated T cells convert to Tc or cytotoxic cells that make contact with the pathogen and inactivate it.
What is CMIR?
Humoral Mediated Immune Response:
A long term specific immune reaction wherein B cells multiply and then convert to plasma cells that secrete antibodies specific to the pathogen for which the reaction is occurring.
What is HMIR?
How many types of antibodies are there?
IgA,
IgD,
IgE,
IgG,
IgM
Vaccines stimulate a primary immune response resulting in the production of memory lymphocytes. Thus the next time that the same pathogen is introduced into the body, it responds with a secondary immune response.
How do vaccines work?
If a person's blood test is positive for HbsAg what can you assume?
That person has been
exposed to Hepatitis B
If a person shows Hepatitis B antibodies in their blood, what can you assume?
That person has had either:
previous exposure to Hepatitis B
or has been vaccinated for
Hepatitis B
The study of the frequency & distribution of disease.
Epidemiology
What is Herd Immunity?
Immunity across a specified population
against a specific pathogen
Center for Disease Control & Prevention:
- A source of information about the geographic distribution of disease.
- Can tell you what diseases are active around you.
What is the CDC?
What is the Incidence Rate?
The number of new occurrences of a disease, injury, or death in the study
population during the time period
being examined.
What is the Prevalence Rate?
The proportion (usually the percentage) of a population that has a defined disease or condition at a particular point in time. Although usually called a rate, it is actually a proportion.
What are the signs of life that are used to define a live birth?
a breath or cry,
any spontaneous movement,
a pulse or heartbeat,
a pulsation of the umbilical cord
What are important problems that public health faces today?
Health Care Delivery

Environmental Health Issues
(radiation, smog, industrial waste)

Alcohol & Drug Abuse
(High stress in population - alcoholism)
(Drug Disease Transmission)

New Communicable Diseases &/or old
pathogens that have become resistance
to known therapy.
What is non-specific immunity?
That immunity which is not targeted
toward a specific pathogen. It is provided through such agents as HCL
in the stomach or lysosomes in the
tears.
What is specific immunity?
That immunity which is targeted
at a specific pathogen.
What is immunity?
The ability of an organism to
protect itself against pathogens.
What are the 2 required immunizations in order to attend a university or college?
Hepatitis B
&
Meningitis Shot