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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cartilage is tough, flexible connective tissue
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Endoskeleton - internal skeleton
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Exoskeleton - external skeleton
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An exoskeleton is tough and hard
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Your skeleton supports your body
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Most of your skeletal system is made up on bone
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Bone is a very hard tissue that makes up the skeletal system
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No all living things have a skeleton
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Lobsters and Insects have a skeleton outside their bodies
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Most of a developing baby's skeleton is made up of cartilage
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During a baby's second and third month of development, bone slowly replaces the cartilage in their skeleton
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Jobs of the skeleton: 1) support and shape 2) move the body 3) protect organs 4) blood cells are made inside some bones 5) store minerals
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Ribs protect the heart and lungs
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Bone work together with muscles to move the body
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Humans have an endoskeleton
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Examples of animals with an exoskeleton: grasshopper, lobsters, ant
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Examples of animals with an endoskeleton: fish, humans, dogs
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Compact bone - mostly solid, dense part of bone
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Compact bone is the hardest part of the bone
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Periosteum - thin membrane that covers a bone
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Spongy bone - part of bone with many small pores or spaces
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The human skeleton has about 206 bones
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Bones come in all shapes and sizes
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The smallest bones in your body are in the three small bones in your ear that help you hear
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The largest bone is the bone in your thigh
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Some bones are tubelike and others are flat
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All bones have a similar structure
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Bones are made up of both living and nonliving material
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Each bone is covered by the periosteum.
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The periosteum has made blood vessels in it that bring food and oxygen to the living bone cells
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Compact bone is made up of living bone cells, protein fibers and nonliving minerals
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The mineral calcium makes compact bone hard
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Calcium keeps your bones hard and strong
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Dairy products are rich in calcium
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Bones are not entirely hard
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The ends of bones are soft and spongy
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Spongy bone is lightweight and gives the bone its strength
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Spaces in spongy bone are filled with bone marrow
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Bone marrow is a soft tissue that is red or yellow in color
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Spongy bone contains red bone marrow
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New blood cells are made in the red bone marrow of spongy bone
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Long bones contain yellow marrow
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Yellow marrow is mostly fat
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The function of the periosteum is to bring food and oxygen to the living bone cells
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Blood vessels in periosteum supply the bones with food and oxygen
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Most bones have different sizes and shapes
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Bone cells and protein fibers make up compact bone.
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Joint - the place where two or more bones meet
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Some bones are connected to other bones at the joint
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Most bones are connected at joints by ligaments
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A ligament is a tough band of tissue that connects one bone to another bone
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There are three main kinds of joints in the body
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The three kinds of joints are 1) fixed 2) partly movable and 3) movable
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The joints in your skulls are Fixed joints
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The joints between your ribs and breastbone are Partly Movable joints
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The joints in our arms and legs have Movable joints
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There are four major kinds of movable joints
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The four kinds of movable joints are: 1) ball-and-socket joints 2) gliding joints 3) hinge joints 4) pivotal joints
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Ball-and-socket joints allow bones to move in all directions. Example: joint between your upper arm and shoulder
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Gliding joints allow some movement in all directions. Example: your wrist
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Hinge joints allow bones to move forward and backward in only one direction. Example: joints located in your elbows and knees
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Pivotal joints allow bones to move side to side and up and down. Example: joint between your skull and neck
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Extensor - muscle that straightens a joint
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Flexor - muscle that bends a joint
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More than 600 muscles make up the muscular system
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Without muscles, the bones of the skeletal system could not move the body
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Muscles are attached to bones by tendons
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A tendon is a strong elastic band of tissue that connects muscle to bone
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Tendons make movement possible
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Muscles only move bones when they contract
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When a muscle contracts, or shortens, it pulls on the tendon, which makes the muscle move
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Muscles can only pull bones
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In order to move your body, most muscles work in teams of two
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The muscles that bend and straighten the arm are good examples of flexors and extensors
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Biceps are flexors. They bend the arm at the elbow. As you bend your arm, the biceps contract (shorten).
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Triceps are the extensors. They straighten the arm at the elbow. The biceps relax while the triceps contract (shorten) and pull the arm straight.
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The main function of the muscular system is to move the body.
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There are three kinds of muscle tissue in the body: striated muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle
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Each muscle type has a different job
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Striated (striped) muscle is attached directly to the bone
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Striated muscle is also called skeletal muscle
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Striated muscles make the body move.
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Striated muscles are usually volunary because they are movements you can control.
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Smooth muscle is found in the walls of blood vessels, the stomach and other internal organs.
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Smooth muscle is called involuntary muscle because you cannot control.
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Cardiac muscle is only found in the heart.
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Cardiac muscle is very strong because it has to pump blood throughout the body
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Cardiac muscle is also striated.
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Cardiac muscle is different from striated because it is involuntary. You have no control over your heart beating.
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The main function of skin is to cover and protect the body
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The skin has two layers -- epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer)
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The epidermis has both living and dead cells
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The dermis is the living layer of skin.
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The dermis has many different structures in it.
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Sweat glands, hair follicles, oil glands, nerve endings and tiny blood vessels
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Pores are tiny openings on the skin's surface
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Sweat, or perspiration, leaves the body thru the pores
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Sense receptors are nerve endings in the skin that receive many messages
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The skin is sensitive to touch, heat, cold, pain and pressure
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There are special nerve endings for each sense receptor
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The skin does not have the same number of each kind of sense receptor
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Touch receptors are far apart on the back and close together at the tip of your nose
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