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42 Cards in this Set

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What human disease is most similar to Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome?
Alzheimer's Dz
To what small animal disease is Alzheimer's Disease most similar?
Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome
What is the best known research model for Alzheimer's Disease?
Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome
What pathologic similarities are shared between Alzheimer's and CDS?
Brain atrophy, meningeal thickening, changes in vascular integrity, gliosis, and compensatory hydrocephalus.
An MRI shows a considerable amount of brain atrophy is a 10-year old dog. What is your diagnosis?
Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome
What protein is accumulated intraneuronally in CDS?
Tau protein, an abnormally hyperphosphorylated microtuble-associated protein
How is CDS cured?
It's not.
What is the prognosis for CDS?
Most patients are euthanized in 18-24 months either from progression of disease or from unrelated causes.
When in life do most anomalous or structural neurological issues manifest themselves?
Either shortly after birth or may present after exacerbation.
Where does Hydrocephalus fit into the DAMNIT scheme?
A-Anomalous/Structural
What anomalous/structural defect should be included in patients showing forebrain signs?
Hydrocephalus
Is hydrocephalus more common in dogs or cats?
Dogs
What is hydrocephalus?
Increased volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain's ventricular system or cranial cavity
Where is most CSF produced?
The choroid plexus tissue in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles as well as the ependymal cell lining of the ventricles and the vasculature of the meninges.
How and where is the CSF absorbed?
Mainly through the arachnoid villi into the dorsal sagittal sinus and finds its way into the systemic circulation.
What is internal hydrocephalus?
When CSF builds up in the ventricular system (most common)
What is the name for the buildup of CSF in the ventricular system?
Internal hydrocephalus
Which is more common: internal or external hydrocephalus?
Internal
What is external hydrocephalus?
Buildup of CSF in the subarachnoid space (rare)
What is the name for buildup of CSF in the subarachnoid space?
External hydrocephalus
What is compensatory (ex vacuo) hydrocephalus?
CSF fills in areas that are devoid of neural tissues. Either certain areas of the brain are not fully formed or are lost and the resultant void fills with CSF.
What is the name for CSF filling in areas that are devoid of neural tissues?
Compensatory hydrocephalus.
Holoprosencephaly or neural destruction/degeneration (secondary to a stroke or trauma) will most likely result in what kind of hydrocephalus?
Compensatory hydrocephalus
What are the two main varieties of obstructive hydrocephalus?
Acquired and congenital
What is acquired hydrocephalus?
An abnormality in the normal circulation of the CSF
A mass or tumor in the brain is obstructing normal flow of the CSF and causing dilation of the ventricular system. What type of hydrocephalus is this?
Acquired obstructive
A patient has an inflammatory CNS disease that compromises the arachnoid villi. What type of hydrocephalus is this?
Acquired obstructive
What is the most common form of hydrocephalus?
Internal hydrocephalus. Congenital hydrocephalus.
What breeds are most affect by hydrocephalus?
Small breeds (Chihuahua, Boston terrier, English bulldog, etc)
Physical exam reveals a large dome-shaped skull, persistent fontanelle, and bilateral ventrolateral strabismus. What is your diagnosis?
Hydrocephalus
Why do you say "persistent fontanelle" and not "open fontanelle"?
"Because, by definition, the fontanelle IS open."
Will all hydrocephalic dogs have a persistent fontanelle?
No
Will all dogs with a persistent fontanelle have hydrocephalus?
No
What causes strabismus?
Function of inadequate and asymmetric vestibular input or problems with CN III
What causes the bilateral ventrolateral strabismus in hydrocephalus?
Orbital malformation and possible increased intracranial pressure.
What is meant and what pathology is indicated by the "setting sun phenomenon" or "sunset eyes" in a canine patient?
The dorsal part of the iris with a prominent sclera resembles a setting sun.
If oculomotor nerve function is normal in a dog with bilateral ventrolateral strabismus, what can be assumed and what diagnosis is indicated?
Normal oculomotor nerve function indicates a structural abnormality like hydrocephalus.
What type of clinical signs are expected in a dog with hydrocephalus?
Forebrain signs (i.e. Blindness, circling, pacing, delayed postural responses, decreased learned responses, restlessness, episodic behavioral changes, and aggression)
What are examples of forebrain signs associated with hydrocephalus?
Blindness, circling, pacing, delayed postural responses, decreased learned responses, restlessness, episodic behavioral changes, and aggression
What must occur for hydrocephalus to show vestibular signs?
Dilation must be severe enough to compress the structures in the caudal fossa.
Do seizures occur in hydrocephalus?
They can, but are not as common as forebrain signs.
How can hydrocephalus be diagnosed?
Combination of characteristic clinical features (forebrain signs), finding ventriculomegaly, and exclusion of other causes of encephalopathy.

Presumptive diagnosis can be made by just performing general PE and neurologic exams.