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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
all members of the enterobacteriaceae family have what four characteristis
1. facultative anaerobes
2. they ferment glucose
3. oxidase negative
4. they reduce nitrates to nitrites
what type of bacteria is salmonella
gram? spore? aerobic?
gram negative rods
non-spore forming
facultative anaerobes
lactose fermenting salmonella?
salmonella does not ferment lactose
H2S produced by salmonella?
produce H2S
motility of salmonella
if present due to presence of lagella

shigella is non motile
the many serotypes of salmonella are detected by
antigen-ab reactions
unique antigen only for salmonella typhi called
Vi antigen
salmonella has what three antigens
O antigen (LPS)
H antigen (part of flagella)
Vi antigen
there are three serotypes of salmonella - which is the only one with more than one serotype
salmonella enteritidies
common sources of labrotory confiramtion of specimens of salmonella
feces, blood, urine
salmonella - lactose fermenting?
non-lactose fermenting
interms of inoculum needed for disease how does salmonella and shigella differ
salmonella requires high inoculum
three distinguishable syndromes caused by salmonella
1. enteric fever
2. septicemias
3. acute gastroenteritis

most serotypes cause only gastroenteritis
typhoid fever is caused by
salmonella - extracellular or intracellular
facultative intracellular
"rose spots" are characteristic of
typhoid fever - salmonella
does typhoid fever cause diarrhea
usually no
osteomyelitis may occur in patients with sicle cell anemia
typhoid fever
salmonella which causes typhoid fever mutiplys w/in what cells
mononuclear cells of Peyer's patches of small intestine
how does salmonella disseminate
enters intestinal lymphatics - travels via the thoracic duct to the blood - goes to the spleen, bone marrow, and always the gall bladder
what toxin is the cause of some of the symptoms of typhoid fever
lipid A component of LPS
what kind of cultures help with the diagnosis of salmonella caused typhoid fever
stool is positive really early.

blood cultures are positive after 7 to 14 days
Test rise in antibody to what antigen is diagnos of typhoid fever
Vi antigen - only found in S. typhi
Febrile agglutinins
elevated or rinsing O and H agglutinins (antibodies O and H antigen) between 1 and 3 weeks - salmonella
first line of therapy for salmonella
fluoroquinolones and third generations cephalosporins

you need something that will target intracellular pathogen
does s. typhi infect animals
vaccination for salmonella?
populations that are at especially at risk for salmonella
1. deficiency gastric acid
2. those w/ defects in cell-mediated immunity are susceptible
the three vaccines (not meant for people under age 6)
oral live, attenuated, Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine
salmonella choleraesuis causes
high fever, bacteremia w/o Gi involment
salmonella which causes suppurative lesions during bacteremia -
s. choleraesuis
most common forms of salmonella infections
enterocolitis caused by salmonella gastroenteritis
are blood cultures usually positive when pt is infected with salmonella caused gastroenteritis
only 5-10%
salmonella type that causes septicemia
S. choleraesuis
serotype of salmonella most frequently involved in egg contamination
salmonella enteritidis
onset of enteric fever, septicemia and gastroenteritis caused by salmonella
enteric fevers: insidious
septicemia: abrupt
gastroenteritis: abrupt
duration of disease of enteric fever, septicemia, gastroenteritis
enteric fever: several weeks
septicemia: variable
gastroenteritis: 2-5 days
gastrointestinal symptoms w/ enteric fevers, septicemia, and gastroenteritis caused by salmonella
enteric fever: ealry constipation, later, bloody diarrhea
septicemia: often none
gastroenteritis: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea on onset
Blood cultures positive in salmonella in enteric fevers, septicemia, gastroenteritis
enteric fever: + in 1,2 week of disease
septicemia: + during high fever
gastroenteritis: positive soon afer onset
typical organism causing enteric fever, septicemia, and gastroenteritis
enteric fever: s.typhi
septicemia: s. chloreraesuis
Gastroenteritis: s. enteritidis
does shigella ferment lactose
lactose fermenter - shigella
no - neither does salmonella
salmonella vs. shigella
production of H2s?
only salmonella - not shigella
motilit - salmonella vs. shigella
salmonella may be -
shigella is not
what is the only antigen that shigella has
O antigen
indole and urease - shigella?
does shigella have an animal reservoir?
where does shigella invade cells
terminal ileum and colon - does NOT penetrate submucosa
shigella causes what disease
what do the two subunits do in the shiga toxin
B: binds intestinal cells
A: released in cells, inhibits protein synthesis by bind 60S - causes cell death and bloody diarrhear
bloody diarrhea is also called
most common shigella in the U.S
extracellular or intracellular - shigella
facultative intracellular
culture to test for shigella comes from
treatment of shigella infeciton
fluid, antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim (sulfonamide)
vaccine for shigella
yest - but not really effectie
how is shigella taken up into cells
by macrophages in phagocytic vacuole induced by shigella
all enterbacteriaceae (enterics)
1. anaerobes?
2. glucose?
3. oxidase?
1. faculatative anaerobes
2. ferments glucose
3. oxidase negative
P. aeruginosa
1. anaerobe?
2. oxidase?
1. obligate aerobe

3. oxidase positive
what is the by product of salmonella nd shigella when they ferment glucose?
salmonella to gas
shigella to acid
three gram - opportunistic pathogens that infect burns and wounds
1. enterbacter cloacae
2. p. aeruginosa
3. klebsiella pneumoniae
four gram negative opportunistic pathogens that infect the respiratory tract
1. enterbacter cloacae
2. p. aeruginosa
3. leg. pneumonia
4. serratia
6 gram negative opportunistic pathogens which infect the Urinary tract
1. e.coli
2. enterbacter cloacae
3. p. aeruginosa
4. klebsiella pneumoniae
5. serratia
6. proteus vulgaris