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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
homologues
another word for a homologous chromosome. they pair during meiosis.
The entire genetic information of a cell is called:
the genome
This molecule binds at the small subunit to make the code for manufacturing an amino acid chain (protein) available to the ribosome.
mRNA
all the proteins in an organism
proteome
During the transcription step in protein synthesis, what enzyme catalyzes a reaction breaking down the hydrogen bonds between the DNA's nucleotides, separating the backbones of the double helix from one another at the nucleotides?
RNA polymerase
what is the name for the set of rules that relate to the base triplet to the codon and the amino acis they specify.
the genetic code
the process of enzymatically reading the nucleotide sequence of a gene and synthesizing a pre mRNA molecule with a complimentary sequence.
(step 1 of protein synthesis)
transcription
The spot where RNA Polymerase starts transcribing is called the _____________
and where it ends is called the ________________
promoter

terminator
PROTEIN FUNCTIONS :
1. Assemble cellular structures
2. Serve as non-steroid hormones, antibodies and contractile elements in muscle tissue
3. enzynes to regulate the numerous chemeical reactions that occur in cells or trnsporters tha carry various materials in the blood
3 types of Protein Function
the process whereby the nucleotide sequence in an mRNA molecule specifies the amino acid sequence in the building of a protein.
translation
directs the synthesis of protein
mRNA; Messanger RNA
joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes
rRNA, ribsomal RNA
binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on the ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein during translation
tRNA; transfer RNA
What consists of a ribose molecule, a phosphate group, and nucleotide bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil?
RNA
What consists of a Deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and nucleotide bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and cytosine?
DNA
During translation, tRNA binds to the:
large subunit of the ribsome
During transcription, when is the double helix of DNA restored?
When RNA Polymerase detaches from the terminator
Which of the following is not present in a molecule of RNA:
deoxyribose

in RNA you would find RIBOSE,
PHOSPHATE, NUCLEOTIDES
breaks the hydrogen bonds between nucleotides on DNA
RNA polymerase
The form of RNA responsible for holding an amino acid in anticipation of protein synthesis:
tRNA
the result of meiosis I =
Two genetically different haploid cells
is replicated during which phase of the cell cycle:

A. G0
B. G1
C. G2
D. Prophase
E. None of the above
THE ANSWER IS E - NONE OF THE ABOVE.
What develops during late anaphase and early telophase allowing the cell membrane to divide into two?
cleavage furrow
The mitotic spindles attach to the chromatids at the:
kinetochore
How many chromosomes does one human sperm cell have?
23 chromosomes
The chromatid pairs split and migrate to opposite poles during which phase:
Anaphase
In which phase do tetrads line up along the metaphase plate:
Methaphase 1
what assembles on the centromere and links the chromosome to microtubule polymers from the mitotic spindle during mitosis and meiosis
kinetochore
A __________is made up of amino acids held together by peptide bonds.
Protein
The sequence of ___________ is what makes one protein different from another one.
Amino Acids
a cell’s hereditary units, which determine what a cell will look like and what it’s structure & function will be.
Genes
creating new proteins is called
Protein Synthesis
the process whereby a gene’s DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is used to direct synthesis of a specific protein to make sure it synthesizes the correct protein.
Gene Expression
step 1 :

the information encoded in a specific region of DNA is transcribed (or copied) to produce a specific molecule of RNA (ribonucleic acid).
step 2 :

RNA attaches to a ribosome, where the information is translated into a corresponding sequence of amino acids to form a new protein molecule.
What is the name of Each set of three nucleotides together is code for and represents one amino acid, the building blocks of proteins.
a base triplet
_______is a molecule of RNA that has three specific nucleotides attached to it. This set of three on the tRNA is called an __________________
tRNA

Anticodon
Step 1: The mRNA, carrying the genetic code binds to the small subunit of a ribosome.

i. The first codon, aka the start codon, is in place on the small subunit of the ribosome.

d. Step 2: A molecule of tRNA with the first codon’s anti-codon attaches to the P site on the ribosome’s large subunit and holds on to its amino acid, the same amino acid represented by the 1st codon.

e. Step 3: A molecule of tRNA with the second codon’s anti-codon, holding the next amino acid, attaches to the A site of the large subunit.

f. Step 4: A component of the large ribosomal subunit catalyzes a reaction causing the formation of a peptide bond between the two amino acids, starting the chain that will form a protein.

g. Step 5: the tRNA on the P site detaches from the ribosome, leaving the P site empty. Its amino acid is also released, leaving it bound to the other amino acid.

h. Step 6: the tRNA molecule that is bound to the A site shifts over to the P site, leaving the A site empty.

i. Step 7: The mRNA shifts so that the 3rd codon is now bound near the A site. A tRNA molecule with the corresponding anti-codon binds to the A site carrying the appropriate amino acid. Go to Step 4 and repeat, forming a chain of amino acids bound together by peptide bonds.

j. Repeat this process until the final codon, called the stop codon, is reached.

k. After the stop codon is reached, the mRNA detaches from the small subunit.

i. The final molecules of tRNA detach from the P & A sites and also release their amino acids, so we are left with a peptide chain of amino acids, aka a protein.

ii. The protein product, which may be an enzyme, hormone, etc. is then packaged and sorted by the golgi complex for use by the cell.
TRANSLATION
Step 1: The enzyme RNA Polymerase catalyzes a reaction breaking the hydrogen bonds between the DNA’s nucleotides, separating the backbones of the double helix from one another at the nucleotides.

i. This leaves the nucleotides open to bond with free-floating nucleotides in the nucleus, which will now take advantage and bond to the open nucleotides.

1. In this case, there are 4 nucleotides:

2. Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and Uracil (U): taking the place of thymine.

3. These nucleotides have a backbone of phosphate and a sugar called ribose.

ii. RNA Polymerase must be instructed where on the DNA strands to start the transcription and where to end it.

1. The spot where it starts is called the promoter and where it ends is called the terminator.

2. RNA Polymerase attaches to the DNA at the promoter to start transcription.

d. Step 2: the free floating nucleotides form hydrogen bonds with the appropriate DNA nucleotides (A to U, C to G).

i. Since we know which nucleotide has to bind with which other nucleotide, the original DNA code (sequence of nucleotides) can be easily deciphered.

ii. At this point, each set of three free-floating nucleotides that bond to the DNA nucleotides, is called a codon. Each codon is an indirect copy of a base triplet and represents the same amino acid that the original base triplet represented.

e. Step 3: RNA Polymerase catalyzes a reaction bonding the phosphate-ribose backbones of now-bonded, formerly free-floating, nucleotides.

i. This forms a strand of nucleotides that preserve the original nucleotide sequence that was on the DNA.

f. Step 4: When RNA polymerase reaches the terminator, it removes itself from the DNA, the nucleotides that bonded to the open DNA nucleotides break their bonds from DNA, but maintain their bonds to each other, forming a strand of nucleotides called messenger RNA, or mRNA.

g. Step 5: With RNA Polymerase now absent, the DNA nucleotides re-form their hydrogen bonds and the double helix is restored.

h. Transcription is now finished and the mRNA molecule, carrying a code for a sequence of amino acids, can pass through a pore in the nuclear envelope into the cytoplasm for translation.
TRANSCRIPTION
The first codon, aka ___________ is in place on the small subunit of the ribosome.
the start codon
In RNA - Adenine binds with _______, not Cytosine.

A-U
Uracil

A-U
C-G
A-U
C-G
In RNA are nucleotides with
a backbone consisting of a phosphate and a sugar called a :
Ribose
catalyzes a reaction breaking the hydrogen bonds between the DNA’s nucleotides, separating the backbones of the double helix from one another at the nucleotides.
RNA polymerase
the process whereby the nucleotide sequence in an mRNA molecule specifies the amino acid sequence in the building of a protein.
It is carried out by ribosomes
Translation