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80 Cards in this Set

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ecosystem concept emerged as alternative theory to
CLEMENT's ideas
CLEMENTS:
-plant ecology
-community is a superorganism
-focused only on biota
Tansley
-didn't like the way Clements only focused on biota

-sugested Abiotic & Biotic components form ONE PHYSICAL SYSTEM

-DEFINED "ECOSYSTEM"

-advocate of hierarchy theory
Lindeman ('40)
40's

-trophic dynamic concept

-patterns of energy flow
Leopold ('49)
'49 - sand county almanac

-nutrient cycling
Odum ('53)
'53

-First Ecology Book
--integrated plant & animal ecology
--based on lindeman's energy flow work
--20 years til the next book

-FOUNDER OF MODERN ECOLOGY
--& ecosystems
[tho ignored evolutionary ecology]
the 60s?
-first terrestrial ecosystem
studies on nutrients (brook)

-first wave of enviromentalism
-SILENT SPRING (rachel carson)
LTER network
70s

Long-Term Ecological Research

(funds CU research..)
Ecosystem theory based on
hierarchy theory
hierarchy theory
-an OBJECT (organism, ecosystem)
-has an ENVIRONMENT (what surrounds it)
-which CONSTRAINS the object via energy & material

-how object FUNCTIONS explained by looking at its PARTS
-parts form a system that give the object its behavior / characteristics

-WHY the object is THERE explained by looking at the level above the object (environment)
hierarchy theory

looking at levels WITHIN the object


(looking at an objects parts)
explain how the object works

-how it functions

-giving it its behavior / characteristics

**MECHANISMS**
hierarchy theory

looking at level ABOVE the object


(the context / enviro)
explains why the object is there

-provides the context for which object is explained

**CONTEXT**
hierarchy theory

& EMERGENT PROPERTIES
little systems make up bigger systems

-each level has unique / emergent properties

(H & O do not explain H2O!!)


*for enviro issues we must study the ecosystem as a mechanism for change (part of higher unit) & (showing it as the changing enviro of an organism) -- higher level
"units" of ecosystem ecology?
energy

mass recycling.....
first law of thermodynamics
energy can't be created or destroyed

(but can be converted from one form to another)
second law of thermodynamics
every energy transfer makes some energy unusable
(waste heat)

-energy conversion efficiency isn't 100%
1 calorie
amount of energy needed to raise 1 cm^3 1*C @ 15*C

-1 calorie = 1/1000 of a food calorie (kcal)
Solar Constant
2 calories / cm^2 / min

-rate at which the biosphere receives solar radiation!!!

-amt of energy received by a surface perpendicular to the sun @ outerspace boundary

[same as a 12pack / m^2 / hour
what form is solar radiation in?
electromagnetic radiation (light)

-UV, visible, & longer wave (invisible)radiation
only surfaces perpendicular to sun get solar constant

(no one gets more)
surfaces moving from 0* to 90*
---amt of energy drops to 0
energy departing = energy incoming
solar radiation in = (albedo)+(longwave radiation out)
2 forms of departing energy?
1) reflected (unused) light

2) longwave (heat) radiation
albedo of clean snow?
~95 %
albedo of vegetation?
15 - 20%
albedo of H2O?
perpendicular to light source == VERY LOW albedo

(generally ocean will absorb more than land)
energy exhange at outerspace boundary?
energy exchange much occur via electromagnetic radiation

-energy that requires mass as a carrier will not pass thru
latent heat
energy required to convert frozen H2O to water....
to change water to water vapor
sensible heat
heat associated w/ the heating of materials
energy reflected at earth's suface can turn into...
-latent heat

-sensible heat

-go into momentum (physical transport of mass)

-chemical energy (photosynthesis)
energy in photosynthesis returned by respiration

energy transported into ground later released into atmosphere
ANNuAL AVERAGE = 0

(these #s are ignored)
at best

an Average Surface will receive

How much Solar Constant?
HALF

only 44% of that half will be visible light
(rest is infrared & thermal -- can't be used by photosynthesis)
---SO plants looking for photons are already down 1/4 the solar constant
why solar energy varies across the globe?
a) latitudinal patterns

b) land v water patterns
net radiation inputs lower on land than on ocean
lower surface temp of H2O allows more solar energy to be stored (as sensible or latent heat)
-than is lost by longwave radiation

(longwave rad lost is a function of the temp of an object)
SUBSIDY OF ENERGY

(energy given to other parts by another..)
the captured energy in the tropics is transferred
to temperate zones
then to the poles
(where its then lost as longwave rad)

[not always the same!!!:: sometimes cold h2o makes continents cold while other times warm h2o traveling makes continents warm]

**THE POLES WOULD BE MUCH COLDER WITHOUT THIS TRANSFER OF ENERGY**
"solar-powered global water cycle"
evaporation from land & oceans
removes energy from surface
transferring it to the atmosphere
energy is released during cloud formation
the hydrologic cycle
-closed

-global

-size & rates of components vary substantially
**residence time for h2o in atmosphere is 11 days
**residence time in ocean is 3500 yrs
global patterns of
precipitation
-decline in precipitation from tropics to poles
***but peak at 40* N & 40* S

{peak in N hemisphere less extreme}

-bc earth is spinning:
h2o & air currents are pulled respectively N & S from equator


-LAND MASSES change precip patterns
El Nino / Southern Oscillation

(ENSO)
largely unpredictable
*WE CANNOT PREDICT WHAT ECOSYSTEM WILL BE PRESENT BASED ON CLIMATE ALONE*
... they predict what should be found.....
water's albedo varies w/ angle of incidence
**100% when sun is extremely low**

**after sun >25% above horizon
albedo < 10%




1* ==== 90% albedo

10* ==== 35% albedo

20* ==== 13%

30* ==== 6.2%

40* ==== 3 %

50* ==== 2%
Jenny:: '41

SOILS ARE A FUNCTION OF:
1. climate (cl)

2. organisms (o)

3. topography (r)

4. parent material (p)

5. time (t)

CLORPT
weathering
formula
&
causes
rocks + acid = 2ndary minerals + nutrients

CAUSES:
-jenny's clorpt model
-*biota
-*temperature
-*moisture
plant's essential (for survival)
nutrients
C, H, O, P, K, N, S, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, B, Cl, Cu, Zn, Mo

chopkins cafe mighty good mighty nice but clara & cousin moe
plant's limiting nutrients

(not an absolute quantity
between availability & needs)
1. NITROGEN

2)PHOSPHOROUS

3)OTHERS
-potassium (K) in agro ecosystems
-Iron (Fe) in polar oceans

-can be limiting because everything else isn't
NITROGEN
limiting nutrient
in what places?
-arctic

-boreal

-temperate terrestrial

-some tropical

-some aquatic

-ocean
PHOSPHEROUS
limiting nutrient
in what places?
-temperate aquatic

-tropical terrestrial
limiting resources
concept
types
1)single resource limitation

2)co-limitation, multiple limitation

3)switching of limiting resources
a)GROWING SEASON
b)ecological SUCCESSION
c)geological TIME
source of soil fertility
thru weathering of parent material

-on geologic time scale

--parent material can produce both nutrients & the substrate (clay)
2 important factors (of weather) in creating soil
1)moisture

2)temperature
weathering is unidirectional
soils can get old

-oldest normally found in undisturbed tropics

-places with disturbances (earthquakes, volcanos)
most limiting element of temperate ecosystems?
nitrogen
most limiting element in
aquatic systems
& tropical terrestrial systems
phosphorous
open oceans are low in productivity
bc
lack of soil

--no storage site for nutrients
"soil fertility"
the ability to provide plants with essential nutrients

-fertile soil has large amts of these nutrients
& adequate h2o to deliver them
"soil succession"
SAME AS SOIL WEATHERING

rocks + acid = secondary minerals (2:1 clays) + nutrients

2:1 clays + acids = 1:1 clays + nutrients

1:1 clays + acids = iron & aluminum oxides + nutrients

iron & aluminum oxides + acid = dissolved iron & aluminum


**cyclic in geolocical time (reappears 10 mill yrs later as parent material)

**one way in ecological time
interaction of jenny's 5 factors result in
soil horizon formation
old soils in the tropics
only leached (E) horizons
arctic soils
only organic matter (O) horizons

--over frozen mineral soil (permafrost)
boreal & temperate coniferous
produce organic acids

-when cold / wet == dissolves everything but silica
===silica is a white layer in the horizon

(can have all horizons present)
prairie soils
MOST FERTILE

-sufficient rainfall & temp ==> 2:1 clays well mixed w/ humus

ONLY A, B, & C

**not enough rainfall to produce E layer
deciduous forest
humus doesn't form well
-not as fertile as prairie

O, A, & B
desert soils
very young bc
little h2o means little weathering

-NO WATER
-NO ACID
-NO NUTRIENTS

-weak soil profiles
nutrient availability / vulnerability
plant uptake comes from nutrients in soil solution

nutrients in soil solution vulnerable --- grabbed by plants, microbes, or lost to leaching

nutrients held by clays & humus available -&- not vulnerable to leaching

-nutrients locked away in organic matter not readily available
desert soils
very young bc
little h2o means little weathering

-NO WATER
-NO ACID
-NO NUTRIENTS

-weak soil profiles
what controls
amount of nutrient storage
1) clays

2) humus
nutrient availability / vulnerability
plant uptake comes from nutrients in soil solution

nutrients in soil solution vulnerable --- grabbed by plants, microbes, or lost to leaching

nutrients held by clays & humus available -&- not vulnerable to leaching

-nutrients locked away in organic matter not readily available
what controls clays & humus
1) weathering:
parent material + acid = clays + plant nutrients

2) humus made during decomposition
what controls
amount of nutrient storage
1) clays

2) humus
soil providing water to plants explains ecological phenomena
1) explains patterns of productivity

2) determines how energy's partitioned
-if water's available for evaporation/transpiration & energy's available
====>energy transfered to the atmosphere W/O WARMING surface
what controls clays & humus
1) weathering:
parent material + acid = clays + plant nutrients

2) humus made during decomposition
soil providing water to plants explains ecological phenomena
1) explains patterns of productivity

2) determines how energy's partitioned
-if water's available for evaporation/transpiration & energy's available
====>energy transfered to the atmosphere W/O WARMING surface
desert soils
very young bc
little h2o means little weathering

-NO WATER
-NO ACID
-NO NUTRIENTS

-weak soil profiles
desert soils
very young bc
little h2o means little weathering

-NO WATER
-NO ACID
-NO NUTRIENTS

-weak soil profiles
nutrient availability / vulnerability
plant uptake comes from nutrients in soil solution

nutrients in soil solution vulnerable --- grabbed by plants, microbes, or lost to leaching

nutrients held by clays & humus available -&- not vulnerable to leaching

-nutrients locked away in organic matter not readily available
what controls
amount of nutrient storage
1) clays

2) humus
what controls clays & humus
1) weathering:
parent material + acid = clays + plant nutrients

2) humus made during decomposition
nutrient availability / vulnerability
plant uptake comes from nutrients in soil solution

nutrients in soil solution vulnerable --- grabbed by plants, microbes, or lost to leaching

nutrients held by clays & humus available -&- not vulnerable to leaching

-nutrients locked away in organic matter not readily available
soil providing water to plants explains ecological phenomena
1) explains patterns of productivity

2) determines how energy's partitioned
-if water's available for evaporation/transpiration & energy's available
====>energy transfered to the atmosphere W/O WARMING surface
what controls
amount of nutrient storage
1) clays

2) humus
what controls clays & humus
1) weathering:
parent material + acid = clays + plant nutrients

2) humus made during decomposition
soil providing water to plants explains ecological phenomena
1) explains patterns of productivity

2) determines how energy's partitioned
-if water's available for evaporation/transpiration & energy's available
====>energy transfered to the atmosphere W/O WARMING surface
-IMPORTANT THERMAL BUFFER
-partially under biotic control (plants doing transpiration)