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45 Cards in this Set

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a solution containing a higher level of salt (NaCl) than is found in a living red blood cell (above 0.9% NaCl)
Hypertonic
mechanisms of movement across the membrane may be passive, requiring no energy from the cell (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, filtration)
Passive Transport
Kinetic Energy; electrons in the molecules. No cells are required for these mechanisms to occur.
Source of Energy for Passive Transport
Process by which substances scatter themselves evenly throughout an available space. Moves from area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration to reach equilibrium.
Diffusion
Substances that diffuse in the human body:
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Water
Substance that moves by osmosis
Water
What pressure results from osmosis?
Osmotic Pressure
Filtration: Molecules can be forced through membranes by the process of this filtration.
Hydrostatic Pressure
In the body this is a type of pressure causing filtration.
Blood Pressure
Where does blood pressure filtration occur?
Starts at the heart, travels through the blood vessels
A solution with the same osmotic pressure as body fluids.
Isotonic
Higher osmotic pressure than body fluids.
Hypertonic
Lower osmotic pressure than body fluids.
Hypotonic
Moves from area of lower concentration to area of higher concentration. Requires ion proteins (pumps). Also requires energy in the form of ATP.
Active Transport
Why would the body want to spend energy to acquire or get rid of something?
Remove Toxins
Molecules that are too large to be transported by other means are engulfed by an invagination of the cell membrane and carried into the cell surrounded be a vesicle.
Endocytosis
Reverse of endocytosis.
Exocytosis
Form in which cells engulf liquids.
Pinocytosis
Form in which the cell takes in larger particles, such as a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium.
Phagocytosis
Use protein pumps to actively transport substances in and out of the cell.
Ion Pumps
Four main types of tissues:
1. Connective: cartilage, bone, blood
2. Muscle (3 types): skeletal (voluntary), cardiac, and smooth
3. Epithelial: skin, visceral (surrounding organs)
4. Nervous
Widespread throughout the body, covers organs and lines body surfaces. Made up of tightly packed cells containing little intercellular material, generally lack blood vessels and are replaced frequently. They tend to have prominent nuclei when viewed under the microscope.
Epithelial Tissue
Hardened fibrous material that produces hair, skin and nails (nails are accessory organs)
Keratinized
Cube shaped cell. Simple: this type functions in secretion of tubular structures, such as the tubules in kidneys and walls of endocrine and exocrine glands.
Cuboidal
Column-like cell, taller than the base is wide. The goblet cell, which secretes mucosa, is a specialized cell found within. Simple: found in mouth, stomach and intestines.
Columnar
Increases surface area of intestinal cells. Aids in absorption of digested nutrients. Found in urinary bladder.
Microvilli
Irregular, flat and scale-like epithelium. Simple: Best suited for lung lining and blood vessels in gas exchange for nutrients or waste. Stratified: Protection of skin, mouth, esophagus.
Squamous
These cells appear layered but really are not because they are of all different heights but attached to basement membrane. Found in the trachea
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Means "to contain cilia on the surface"
Ciliated
Cannot classify this type as to shape because it's always changing/in transition. It's found in the bladder and regulates different volumes
Transitional epithelium
Bind, support, protect, serve as frameworks, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells, protect against infection, repair tissue damage. Unlike connective tissue they have an abundant matrix throughout and have good blood supply (except cartilage)
Connective Tissue
Intercellular material.
Matrix
collagenous, reticular and elastic fibers. They provide varying levels of strength.
Connective tissue composition
1. Plasma: creates antibodies
2. Fibroblasts: secrete fibers for extra cellular matrix (glue of the body)
3. Adiposites: protects, insulates, stores triglycerides.
4. Mast Cells: help in immune function, inflammatory response, phagytosis
4 Connective Tissue Cell Types
Forms subcutaneous layer along with adipose tissue. Arranged loosely. Main cells found are fibroblasts.
Loose fibrous connective tissue (areolar)
Specialized loose connective tissue designed to store triglycerides. Located in the omentum, surrounds the kidneys and heart, subcutaneous layer.
Adipose tissue
Very strong because of the arrangement of collagenous fibers. Close arrangement and overlap make this a tough tissue. Found all over the body, commonly in tendons and ligaments.
Dense fibrous connective tissue
Rigid connective tissue that provides a supportive framework for various structures. It lacks a vascular system making healing process slow. Made of collagen fibers.
Cartilage
Cartilage cells
Chondrocytes
Osteons or Haversian Canal Systems
Bone Matrix Composition
Bone cells
Osteocytes
Build new bone cells
Osteoblasts
Break down bone cells
Osteoclasts
Why is bone tissue "pretty"?
Cells are arranged in concentric circles.
Red/White blood cells and a liquid plasma
Blood compostion