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103 Cards in this Set

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Three sections of the chest anatomy.
Bony thorax
Respiratory system
Mediastinum
The part of the skeletal system providing a protective framework for the parts of the chest.
Bony thorax
Anterior part of the bony thorax made of the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process.
Sternum
(seventh cervical vertebra)
The first prominent process felt down the back of the neck.
An important landmark for determing the CR location of a PA chest projection.
Vertebra prominens
(manubrial or suprasternal notch)
A depression on the superior portion of the sternum below the thyroid cartilage(Adam's apple)
An important landmark for determing the CR placement of AP chest projections.
Jugular notch
The inferior tip of the sternum.
Corresponds to the level of T9 or T10.
NOT a reliable landmark for positioning the chest.
Xiphoid tip
Parts of the respiratory system.
Pharynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Lungs
The chief muscle of inspiration.
Diaphragm
The upper airway.
A passageway for both food and fluids, as well as air.
Pharynx
A lid for the slanted opening of the larynx.
Prevents food and fluid from entering the larynx and bronchi.
Epiglottis
The part of the digestive system that connects the pharynx with the stomach.
Esophagus
Voice box.
Framework consists of cartilages.
Larynx
The small bone the larynx is suspended from.
Hyoid bone
The largest and lest mobile cartilage in the larynx.
Thyroid cartilage
Windpipe.
Trachea
A vascular organ located anteriorly in the neck region just below the larynx with its right and left lobes lying on each side and distal to the proximal trachea.
Thyroid gland
Gland located just distal to the thyroid gland.
Thymus gland
Bronchus that is wider, shorter, and more vertical.
Food and other objects often lodge here.
Right Bronchus
Bronchus that is smaller in diameter but is twice as long.
Left Bronchus
A specific prominence, or ridge, of the lowest tracheal cartilage, where it divides into r and l bronchi.
Carina
Made of three lobes.
Right lung
Double-walled membrane which completely encloses the lungs.
Pleura
Outer membrane of the pleura.
Parietal pleura
Inner membrane of the pleura.
Pulmonary (or visceral) pleura
The potential space between the pleura membranes.
Pleural cavity
Double-walled sac that surrounds the heart.
Pericardial sac
The rounded upper area of each lung above the level of the clavicles.
Apex
The lower concave area of each lung that rests on the diaphragm.
Base
The extreme outermost lower corner of each lung, where the diaphragm meets the ribs.
Costophrenic angle
aka- the root region
THe central area of each lung, where the bronchi, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves enter and leave the lungs.
Hilum
The medial prtion of the thoracic cavity between the lungs.
Mediastinum
Four important structures located in the mediastinum.
Thymus gland
Heart and great vessels
Trachea
Esophagus
Body Habitus:
?% of people are obese
5% are Hypersthenic
Body Habitus:
?% of people are average
50% are Sthenic
Body Habitus:
?% of people are tall/thin
35% are Hyposthenic
Body Habitus:
?% of people are extreme thin
10% are Ashtenic
When foreign objects are swallowed or sucked into the air passages of the bronchial tree.
Aspiration
A condition in which collapse of all or a portion of a lung occurs as a result of an obstruction of the bronchus.
Atelectasis
An irreversible dilation or widening of bronchi or bronchioles resulting from repeated pulmonary infection or obstruction.
Bronchiectasis
An acute or chronic condition in which excessive mucus is secreted into the bronchi.
Bronchitis
A form of persistent obstruction of airway.
Caused by smoking (emphysema and chronic bronchitis)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
The most common of inherited diseases, in which secretions of heavy mucus cause progressive "clogging" of bronchi or bronchioles.
Cystic Fibrosis
A condition of shortness of breath, which creates a sensation of difficulty in breathing.
Caused by physical exertion or maybe pulmonary edema related to cardiac conditions.
Dyspnea
An irreversible and chronic lung disease in which alveoli air spaces become greatly enlarged as a result of alveolar wall destruction and loss of alveolar elasticity.
Caused by smoking or long-term dust inhalation.
Emphysema
Inflammation of the epiglottis. Common in children ages 2-5.
Epiglottitis
Refers to growth of a new tumor.
May be benign or malignant.
Neoplasm
The most common benign pulmonary mass generally found in peripheral regions of the lungs.
Hamartoma
A condition of abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity.
aka- hydrothorax
Pleural effusion
A type of pleural effusion when the fluid is pus.
Caused by chest wounds, rupture of lung abscess, ect
Empyema
A type of pleural effusion when the fluid is blood.
Caused by congestive heart failure, pancreatitis, ect
Hemothorax
Characterized by inflammation.
Caused by visceral and parietal "rubbing" during respiration.
Pleurisy
An inflammation of the lungs resulting in accumulation of fluid within certain sections of the lungs.
Pneumonia
Caused by aspiration of a foreign object or food into the lungs, which irritates the bronchi resulting in edema.
Aspiration pneumonia
Bronchitis of both lungs most commonly caused by Streptococcus or Staph bacteria.
Bronchopneumonia
Pneumonia generally defined to one or two lobes of the lungs.
Lobar pneumonia
Causes inflammation of the alveoli and connecting lung structures.
Viral(interstitial) pneumonia
An accumulation of air in pleural space, causing partial or complete collapse of that lung and resulting in immediate and severe shortness of breath and chest pain.
Pneumothorax
A condition of excess fluid withing the lung.
Caused by a backup of pulmonary circulation commonly associated with congestive heart failure.
Pulmonary edema
A sudden blocking of an artery of the lung.
Large clots can cause sudden death.
Pulmonary emboli
An emergency condition, in which the alveoli and capillaries of the lung are injured or infected, resulting in leakage of fluid and blood into the spaces between alveoli or into the alveoli themselves with formation of hyaline membranes.
Respiratory distress syndrome(RDS)
aka Hyaline membrane disease (in infants)
A contagious diseasee caused by airborne bacteria. Its occurence has begun to rise again with the increased incidence of acquired AIDS and in the presence of urban overcrowding and unsanitary conditions.
Tuberculosis (TB)
Tuberculosis that occurs in persons who have never had the disease before.
Primary TB
Tuberculosis that develops in adults and is generally first evident on radiographs.
Reactivation(secondary) TB
Caused by deposits of coal dust. With long-term inhalation, it spreads throughout the lungs.
Anthracosis
aka Black lung pneumoconiosis
Caused by inhalationof asbestos dust, resulting in pulmonary fibrosis.
May develop into lung cancer.
Asbestosis
A permanent condition of the lungs caused by inhaling silica dust, a form of sand dust.
ex-mine workers, sandblasters
Silicosis
PA and lat chest and lat upper airway.

Radiodense or radiopaque outline.
Aspiration
PA and lat chest

Hyperinflation (general radiolucency) and dominant lung markings of lower lungs.
Bronchitis
PA and lat chest

Increased lung dimensions, barrel-chested, flattened diaphragm, radiolucent lungs.
Emphysema
Erect PA and lat chest or
horizontal beam lateral decub with affected side down.

Increased radiodensity, air-fluid levels possible mediastinal shift.
Pleural effusion
PA and lat chest.

Patchy infeltrate with increased radiodensity.
Pneumonia
A fluid build up in the lungs that the body tries to get rid of, causing other parts of the body to swell with fluid.
Caused by COPD, emphysema, CHR
Pitting adema
Lines that separate the lungs.
Fissure
Glands embedded in the thyroid gland.
Parathyroid glands
Weight of thyroid gland.
1 ounce (25-30g)
Location of thyroid gland.
C6
Location of laryngeal prominence.
C5
Term for living tissue.
Perincama
Ring of cartilage forming the inferior and posterior wall of the larynx.
Cricoid cartilage
Why does the detection of pneumothorax require special breathing?
The apex will pull away from the upper chest wall.
EFA for aspiration
decrease
EFA for Atelectasis
increase
EFA for Bronchiectasis
generally none
EFA for Bronchitis
generally none
EFA for COPD
decrease
EFA for Cystic Fibrosis
increase with severe condition
EFA for dyspnea
dependant on cause
EFA for Emphysema
significant decrease, dependent on severity
EFA for Epiglottitis
decrease
EFA for Lung neoplasm
benign or malignant
increase
EFA for pleural effusion
increase
EFA for pneumonia
increase
EFA for pneumothorax
decrease
EFA for pulmonary edema
increase
EFA for pulmonary emboli
generally none
EFA for RDS
increase
EFA for primary TB
generally none
EFA for secondary TB
increase
EFA for occupational lung disease
antracosis
asbestosis
silicosis
increase
The apices of the lungs extend up to?
T1
At what level does the trachea divide?
T4 or T5
At what level is the larynx?
C6
At what level is the jugular notch?
C3