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79 Cards in this Set

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Command Economy
an economic system in which the state or government controls the factors of production and makes all decisions about their use and about the distribution of income
bourgeoisie
Marxism defines the bourgeoisie as the social class which obtains income from ownership or trade in capital assets, or from commercial activities such as the buying and selling of commodities, wares, and services.
proletariat
that class of society which does not have ownership of the means of production
Dictatorship of the proletariat
term employed by Marxists that refers to a temporary state between the capitalist society and the classless and stateless communist society; proletariat is the ruling class
party state
a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election
perestroika
economic reforms introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev;

Law of Cooperatives: law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors
Soviet Venture Law: foreigners could have a stake in Soviet companies
Restrictions on foreign trade were loosened
Karl Marx
19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary; “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”; capitalism-->radical socialism--->classless communism
Vladimir Lenin
a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic; Leninism: branch of Marxism;
Joseph Stalin
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee; Stalin's increasing control of the Party from 1928 onwards led to his becoming the de facto party leader and the dictator of his country; His crash programs of industrialization and collectivization in the 1930s, along with his ongoing campaigns of political repression, are estimated to have cost the lives of up to 20 million people
Mao Zedong
led the Communist Party of China (CPC) to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War; establish PRC; transformed the country into a major power through his Maoist social and economic reforms however caused severe damage to the culture, society, economy and foreign relations of China,
Deng Xiaoping
twice rehabilitated de facto leader of China even though never held head of state or govt; Four Modernizations led to the growth of the Chinese socialist market economy
Boris Yeltsin
first president of the Russian Federation; transition to a capitalist market economy was a disaster; established a New Constitution with a Presidential/Parliamentary Hybrid-French model
Mikhail Gorbachev
last leader of the Soviet Union; leads three revolutions: economic, political (stops political supremacy of the CPSU), nationalities
bolshevik
faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) and ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks seized power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Soviet Union.
De-Stalinization
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin; ended large scale forced labor; price cuts; amnesty for many individuals serving criminal sentences
Politburo
functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The body was made up of the top members of the Central Committee
Secretariat
key body within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was responsible for the central administration of the party; members were elected by the Communist Party's Central Committee
Vladimir Putin
current President of Russian Federation; handpicked by Boris Yeltsin; controlled democracy has eroded to a semi-authoritarian rule; media under control of gov't
glasnost
policy of maximal publicity, openness, and transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union, together with freedom of information, introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev
Commonwealth of Independent States
loose confederation of 11 former Soviet Republics; critics say it has allowed Russia to maintain its influence over former Soviet Republics
shock therapy
transformation of Russia's Communist planned economy into a capitalist market economy, endorsed a programme of "shock therapy," cutting Soviet-era price controls and introducing drastic cuts in state spending; GDP fell by 50%; corruption increased; unemployment rose
soviet privatization
policy under Yeltsin to break up state-owned enterprises; vouchers were given to everyone; these vouchers were exploited by businessmen and leaded to the rise of Oligarchs; disastrous for the general population
February Revolution
saw the Czar being overthrown; collapse of Imperial Russia; alliance between liberals and socialists desiring greater democracy
“near abroad”
use of oil and energy in Ukraine and Pres.
Kuchma as well as Sheverdnadze of Georgia (threat of visas; says Georgia supports Chechens)-keep 4 Russian bases there. Georgia pressure to remove
Russian Orthodoxy
second largest local church after Rome; persecuted by Stalin and Communist regimes; Glastnost allowed for its recovery
Peter I
carried out a policy of "Westernization" and expansion that transformed the Tsardom of Russia into the Russian Empire, a major European power
October Revolution
The October Revolution overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to Bolsheviks; followed by the Russian Civil War and the establishment of the Soviet Union
Nikita Khrushchev
first leader after Stalin; headed de-Stalinization program; his focus on consumer goods led to a rise in living standards; persecuted Russian Orthodoxy Church; poor diplomat
Leonid Brezhnev
followed Khrushchev; ignored fundamental economic problems and did not build on past economic success (Brezhnev Stagnation); ill-fated decision to intervene in Afghanistan
autocracy
a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person
KGB
was the umbrella organization name for the Soviet Union's premier security agency, secret police, and intelligence agency; disbanded by Yeltsin into FSB and SVR
Mafiya
grew in the period of economic chaos that was created by Yeltsin's economic transition; seized control of the nation's fragile banking system
New Economic Policy
decree introduced by Lenin required the farmers to give the government a specified amount of raw agricultural product as a tax in kind; production grew as farmers could sell their surplus and had an incentive to grow more
Gennadi Zyuganov
head of the Communist part of the Russian Federation; placed a distant second to Putin in 2000 elections and will run in 2008
State Duma
lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia; voted in by proportional representation; powers to check President- oversee laws, approve/reject PM
collectivization
Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. Rather, the workers receive a share of the farm's net productivity; unreasonably high quotas lead to starvation of millions under Stalin
Federation Council
upper house of Russian Parliament; fairly weak, can reject Duma bills but then can be overridden; approve bills by Duma
Gosplan
was the committee for economic planning in the Soviet Union; created the Five Year Plans
Mikhail Fradkov
chosen by Putin to be P.M. of Russia; next in line to be President; chosen b/c he does not have ties to a political group of clan
Russian Federation
created following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991; largest country in the world; constantly dealing with separatist movements
siloviki
a Russian politician from the old security or military services, often the KGB and military officers or other security services who came into power ex. Vladimir Putin
nomenklatura
small, élite subset of the general population in the Soviet Union who held various key administrative positions in all spheres of the Soviet Union: in government, industry, agriculture, education, etc. Without exception, they were members of the Communist Party
Chechnya
has tried to secede from Russia; two unsuccessful wars; Pro-Moscow government now in power; separatist movement still exists
Marxism-Leninism
belief in the necessity of a violent overthrow of capitalism through communist revolution, to be followed by a dictatorship of the proletariat as the first stage of moving towards communism, and the need for a vanguard party to lead the proletariat in this effort
Congress of Peoples Deputies
supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union in two periods; under Gorbachev the elections were competitive
Liberal Democratic Party
leader of the Communist Party and thus de facto Leader of the Soviet Union; first held by Stalin
Liberal Democratic Party
authoritarian political party; sees itself as centrist; seen by outsiders as a radical nationalist group
Communist Party of the Russian Federation
led by Gennady Zyuganov; leading opposition party but on the decline in the State Duma; sometimes seen as successor to CPSu
United Russia
-controls 2/3 of the seats in the Duma
-stronger with Putin's new legislation
-backs Putin and follows his idealogy
-formed in 2001
FSB/SVR
FSB: domestic state intelligence service of Russia

SVR: foreign intelligence service of Russia
Vladimir Zhirinovsky
head/founder of the LDP, very nationalist
Confucius
philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity; gained prominence during the Han Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
united China in 221BC; left a legacy of a centralized and bureaucratic state that would be carried onto successive dynasties; BEGINNING OF IMPERIAL CHINA
Four Modernizations
pushed by Deng Xiopiang
-agriculture
-industry
-national defense
-sci/tech
Qing Dynasty-MANCHU
reigned for about 270 years; overthrown in the Chinese Revolution; gave way to a period of Warlords; lost the Opium War
mass line
method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political leadership in the concerns and conditions of the masses; developed by Mao
Great Leap Forward
Mao's attempt at using China's large population to push the country through stages of economic development; widely regarded as a complete economic failure resulting in 15-20 million people dying
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
launched by Mao Zedong to regain power; his chief political rivals- Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping- were both removed from positions of power
Chiang Kai-Shek
leader of the KMT; lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communists; retreated to Taiwan where he established the Republic of China and was the president
Hu Jintao
General-Secretary of CCP and President of China; seen as part of a new generation of more pragmatic technocrats
Sun Yat-sen
"father of Modern China"; created the KMT and was the first provisional of the Republic of China; consolidated communists and KMT but split apart upon his death
Wen Jiabao
premier of the PRC; "the socialist system in China will continue for the next 100 years"; very popular in China
guanxi
a personal connection between two people in which one is able to prevail upon another to perform a favor or service; reference to the corruption within Chinese society
Middle (Central) Kingdom
idea that China is the middle of the world
Jiang Zemin
"Third Generation"; former President of China and General-Sec of CCP; oversaw peaceful return of Hong Kong and Macau; improved foreign relations
National Peoples Congress
highest state body in the People's Republic of China; very rare for it to defeat a proposal; has become a mediating ground between different sects of the party
Zhou Enlai
former Premier of PRC; instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power and reformation of Chinese society
General Secretary
highest ranking official of the CCP and is also the head of the military and the country; serves as the leader of the Politburo
Taiwan
referred by locals as ROC; established by Chiang Kai-Shek; China sees it as another province
SEZ
areas in China that have more liberal economic laws than anywhere else in the country
PRC
an emerging superpower; established by the CCP; wasn't recognized as the official representation of China by the West until the 1970s
Falun Gong
a cultivation system composed of meditation exercises; has been harassed by China
CCP
ruling party as guaranteed by the country's constitution; gained control during the Chinese Civil War
PLA
largest standing army in the world; has come to China's aid to restore stability at times; sign that China is still a NIC b/c of army's involvement
Kuomintang (Guomindang)
Asia's oldest political party founded by Sun and later run by Chiang; ruling party on Taiwan
Politburo
group of 19 to 25 people who hold state positions and oversee China; main power resides in PSC
Tiananmen Square
a large scale protest of the CCP; students voiced their complaints for more freedom and a full-fledged democracy; military crackdown left hundreds dead
Democracy Movement
played an important roll of the protests at Tiananmen Square; no longer considered a threat to the PRC
Standing Committee of the Politburo
9 members that are China's top political leaders; come to decisions by consensus