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37 Cards in this Set

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Lavrentii Beria
1. was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus.

Beria is now remembered chiefly as the executor of Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of the 1930s, even though he actually presided only over the closing stages of the purge. He was most influential during and after World War II and immediately after Stalin's death, when he carried out a brief campaign of liberalization as First Prime Minister. This ended with his execution on the orders of Khrushchev.
Michail Gorbachev
2. He was the last leader of the Soviet Union, serving from 1985 until its collapse in 1991. His attempts at reform helped to end the Cold War, and also ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and dissolved the Soviet Union
Alexander Kerenskii
3. was a Russian revolutionary leader who was instrumental in toppling the Russian monarchy. He served as the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until Vladimir Lenin seized power following the October Revolution.
Nikita Khrushchev
4. leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. He was First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964. He was removed from power by his party colleagues in 1964 and replaced by Leonid Brezhnev. He spent the last seven years of his life under the close supervision of the KGB.
Vladimir Putin
5. He became Acting President of Russia on December 31, 1999, succeeding Boris Yeltsin, and was sworn in as President following the elections on May 7, 2000. In 2004 he was re-elected for a second term (and last under the current Constitution),
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
6. a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. Through his writings, he made the world aware of the Gulag, and, for these efforts, Solzhenitsyn was both awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970 and exiled from the Soviet Union in 1974. He returned to Russia in 1994. In 1994, he was elected as a member of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in the Department of Language and Literature.
Andrei Sakharov
7. was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union.
Iosif Stalin
8. was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until 1953. Despite his formal position being originally without significant influence, and his office being nominally but one of several Central Committee Secretariats, Stalin's increasing control of the Party from 1928 onwards led to him becoming the de facto party leader and the dictator of his country
Boris Yeltsin
9. was the first President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999.
1. collectivization was introduced by Stalin in the late 1920s as a scheme to boost agricultural production through the organization of land and labor into collectives called collective farms (kolkhozes) and state farms (sovkhozes). At the same time, it was argued that collectivization would free poor peasants from economic servitude under the kulaks. It was hoped that the goals of collectivization could be achieved voluntarily, but when the new farms failed to attract the number of peasants hoped, the government blamed the oppression of the kulaks and resorted to forceful implementation of the plan.

Due to unreasonably high government quotas, farmers often got far less for their labor than they did before collectivization, and some refused to work. In many cases, the immediate effect of collectivization was to reduce grain output and almost halve livestock, thus producing major famines in 1932 and 1933
Berlin Blockade
2. when the Soviet Union blocked railroad and street access to West Berlin. The crisis abated after the Soviet Union did not act to stop American, British and French airlifts of food and other provisions to the Western-held sectors of Berlin following the Soviet blockade.
Civil War
February Revolution (1917)
4. first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the collapse of Imperial Russia and the Romanov dynasty
October Revolution (1917)
5. The October Revolution overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to Bolsheviks. It was followed by the Russian Civil War (1917–1920) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.

The revolution was planned earlier, on October 10,[1] led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks[1] with the Mensheviks, Left Socialist-Revolutionaries and anarchists. Bolshevik troops began the take over of government buildings on October 24;[1] however, October 25 was the date that the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government located in Saint Petersburg, then capital of Russia), was captured. It was the first Marxist communist revolution in history.
Battle of Stalingrad
6. battle between Germany and its allies and the Soviet Union for the Soviet city of Stalingrad that took place between August 21, 1942 and February 2, 1943, as part of World War II. It was the turning point of World War II and was arguably the bloodiest battle in human history, with combined casualties estimated above 1.5 million. The battle was marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties on both sides. The battle is taken to include the German siege of the southern Russian city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd), the battle inside the city, and the Soviet counter-offensive which eventually trapped and destroyed the German Sixth Army and other Axis forces around the city.
Cold War
World War II, Russia in
Red Army
1. were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. The Red Army eventually grew to form the largest army in history from the 1940s until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, although China's People's Liberation Army may have eclipsed the Red Army in size during some periods. "Red" refers to the blood shed by the working class in its struggle against capitalism
Bolshevik Party
2. derived from bolshinstvo, "majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction[1] at the Second Party Congress in 1903 and ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[2] The Bolsheviks seized power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Soviet Union.

Bolsheviks were an organization of professional revolutionaries under a strict internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism and quasi-military discipline, who considered themselves as a vanguard of the revolutionary proletariat. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism.[3] The party was founded by Vladimir Lenin, who also led it in the October Revolution.
3. was the first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations. It was created by a decree issued on December 20, 1917 by Vladimir Lenin
4. a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Union's affairs of state.

The NKVD is best known for the Main Directorate for State Security (GUGB), which succeeded the OGPU and the Cheka as the secret police agency of the Soviet Union. Many consider the NKVD to be a criminal organization, mostly for the activities of GUGB officers and investigators, as well as supporting NKVD troops and Gulag guards. The NKVD was also responsible for administering Stalin's foreign intelligence service and overseas 'special operations'.
5. The KGB was the umbrella organization name for the Soviet Union's premier security, secret police, and intelligence agency, from 1954 to 1991.
Communist Party
6. CPSU--> Communist Party of the Soviet Union:
-->It emerged in 1912 as the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party created a separate party. The party led the October Revolution, which led to the establishment of a socialist state in Russia. The party was dissolved in 1991, at the
7. State Committee for Planning.
--> One of its main duties was the creation of Five-Year Plans.
8. is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (legislature), the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia. It's headquartered in downtown Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin, in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved by the Russian public in a referendum.
Provisional Government(1917)
9. When the authority of the Czar's government began disintegrating after the February Revolution of 1917, two rival institutions, the Duma and the Petrograd Soviet, competed for power. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on March 15 and his brother, Grand Duke Michael, refused the throne the next day. The Grand Duke wanted the provisional government to rule until the Constituent Assembly determined the form of government in Russia. The provisional government was to provide elections to the Assembly, but its power was effectively limited by the Petrograd Soviet's growing authority. Although at first the Soviet gave support to the Provisional Government, this gradually eroded. Since the Soviet controlled the army, factories and railways and had the support of the workers, this became a period of dual authority.
10. workers' councils, known as soviets, sprang up across the country.
1. a place for political prisoners and as a mechanism for repressing political opposition to the Soviet state. Though it imprisoned millions, the name became familiar in the West only with the publication of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's 1973 The Gulag Archipelago, which likened the scattered camps to a chain of islands.
2. With the impending collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, an independence movement, initially known as the Chechen National Congress was formed. This movement was ultimately opposed by Boris Yeltsin's Russian Federation, which argued: (1) Chechnya had not been an independent entity within the Soviet Union – as the Baltic, Central Asian, and other Caucasian States had – but was a part of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic and hence did not have a right under the Soviet constitution to secede; (2) Other ethnic groups inside Russia, such as the Tatars, would join the Chechens and secede from the Russian Federation if they were granted that right; and (3) Chechnya was at a major chokepoint in the oil-infrastructure of the country and hence would hurt the country's economy and control of oil resources.
Collective Farm/Kolkhoz
3. a member, called kolkhoznik (колхо́зник, feminine колхо́зница), was paid a share of the farm’s product and profit according to the number of workdays, while a sovkhoz employed salaried workers. Also members of kolkhozy were allowed to hold one acre of private land and a couple of animals. The kolkhozy were widely hated as a Soviet institution (Inkeles & Bauer - The Soviet Citizen) but, unlike work on a sovkhoz, on a kolkhoz peasants were at least able to cultivate private plots once they had filled their daily obligations, and these private plots were often the source of the majority of their income.
Intelligentsia (Soviet)
4. acquired a formal definition of mental and cultural workers. More specifically, there were categories of "scientific-technical intelligentsia" (научно-техническая интеллигенция) and "creative intelligentsia" (творческая интеллигенция). Teachers and lawyers were considered "intelligentsia
5. the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. It includes an extensive use of propaganda to establish a personality cult around an absolute dictator, extensive use of the secret police to maintain social submission.
NEP/ New Economic Policy
6. In essence, the decree required the farmers to give the government a specified amount of raw agricultural product as a tax in kind

-Further decrees refined the policy and expanded it to include some industries.
7. new middle class
8. Russian term (which passed into English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "reconstructing", which refers to restructuring of the Soviet economy.
Five-year plans
9. The initial five-year plans were created to serve in the rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union, and thus placed a major focus on heavy industry. Altogether, there were 13 five-year plans.
War Communism
10. was the economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with the aim of keeping towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food, in conditions when all normal economic mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by the war.