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135 Cards in this Set

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What is the most common congenital heart problem in cattle?

Breed predisposition?

Direction of shunt?
Ventricular septal defect

Herefords predisposed

Usually the hole is small and the animal appears fine. If it is big enough, you get a L to R shunt.

T/F The loudness of a heart murmur in a cow can be correlated with the severity of the defect.

What is the #1 arrhythmia in cattle?

What other disease may be the cause?
Atrial fibrillation

GI disease/Vagal indigestion/Electrolyte imbalance -> Increased vagal tone -> Hypo K, Hypo Ca, metabolic alkalosis -> Arrhythmias

This condition is typically only seen in the western US, males > females, in the winter, or animals exposed to locoweed.

What does it lead to (medical term)?
High Altitude Disease, aka "Brisket disease" or "Mountain sickness"

Cor pulmonale

Is it the BLV or a Non-BLV (ex: thymic) form of Lymphosarcoma that has a predilection for the right atrium?
BLV-induced Lymphosarcoma likes to go to the right atrium, but the Thymic form can also cause right heart disease.

Describe how High Altitude Disease can lead to a cor pulmonale.
It is because they are breathing air with low O2 concentration, so chronic alveolar hypoxia, which causes pulmonary hypertension, which leads to RV hypertrophy, which leads to R heart failure = cor pulmonale

How can High Altitude Disease be treated/managed?
Get animals to lower elevations, which will hopefully cure them. For nonresponsive animals, you may need to cull them.

Cows that eat White Locoweed may be predisposed to developing this disease.
High Altitude Disease

What is probably the #1 acquired heart condition in cattle?

It primarily affects the _______ and _____ valves, and is on the right side in cattle ______% of the time.

Often affects the pulmonic and tricuspid valves. 80-90% of it is on the right, and often follows some form of chronic heart disease.

The most common bacteria isolated in cases of endocarditis in cows is _______.

What is the characteristic murmur/heart sound for endocarditis? Necropsy finding?
A. pyogenes

A loud systolic murmur, usually louder on the R. Vegetative/cauliflower-like growths on the heart valves is typical.

If you see hypoalbuminemia with an elevated total protein, think this disease process.

What should you consider in looking at creatinine levels in cows?
Chronic inflammation

Think about the muscle mass the cow has, since that can have an effect.

If you see a neutropenia and a monocytopenia, think this disease process.
A Gram negative septicemia (the neuts and monos are sticking to the vessel walls trying to fight the bacteria, lowering the numbers found in the blood)

What about hardware disease causes a constrictive pericarditis?
The abscess can cause fibrosis of the pericardial sac, causing a constrictive pericarditis because it inhibits the ability of the heart to contract.

Where would you do a pericardiocentesis in a cow (such as if you were suspecting hardware disease)?
5-6th ICS at the CCJ


You are called out to examine a dairy cow that has not been eating much and is standing out in the field with her elbows abducted and seems to be in pain. You hear muffled heart sounds on auscultation.

Treatment options?
Hardware disease = Traumatic reticulopericarditis

1. Cull
2. Give her antibiotics and a magnet

1. Rumenotomy- go in and remove the wire/nail

If you are that one guy that does it:
1. Rib resection with pericardectomy and marsuipialization of the pericardial sac to the skin.

What is the hallmark of atrial fibrillation in cattle on an ECG?

What is thought to be the cause of 80% of atrial fibrillations in cattle?
No p waves.

GI disease, things that disrupt elecrolytes (hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic alkalosis)

You are treating a down cow with milk fever using IV calcium and she starts to get bradycardic. What is something you can give her?

How about a calf with diarrhea that has no p waves from hyperkalemia?
Atropine in a quick IV infusion

Hypertonic saline to drive K back into the cells.

As little as 200g of this common ornamental plant can kill a steer from depressing myocardial conductivity.
Japanese yew

Gossypol has both free and bound forms. Which is toxic to cattle? Are younger or older animals more susceptible?
The free form.

Younger animals are less able to bind the free form in their gut, making them more susceptible.

Myocarditis in cattle is most often secondary to infection by what organism?
Histophilus somnus


This primarily tick-transmitted disease causes an extravascular hemolysis, leading to watery blood, pale mucous membranes, fever, and depression.

Which species is the cause of 80% of the cases?

Anaplasma marginale

Why shouldn't you chase a cow with Anaplasmosis?

What is unique about Anaplasmosis and severity in cattle?
They are anemic, and stress/exercise can make them fall over dead from hypoxia.

Severity increases with age...very young animals rarely show clinical signs.

What are the four stages of Anaplasmosis?
1. Incubation stage: Ends when 1% of RBC's are infected.

2. Developmental stage: Ends when reticulocytes appear in the blood.

3. Convalescent stage: Ends when all blood values return to normal

4. Carrier stage: The Anaplasma bodies disappear for the rest of the animal's life.

*What is the treatment for Anaplasmosis?

*What histologic finding should you see on a smear of infected blood?

Bodies on the margins of RBC's with Wright's or Giemsa stains.

This solely tick-borne disease causes an intravascular hemolysis but but was eradicated in the US.
Babesiosis (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina)

Extravascular hemolysis, think...
Intravascular hemolysis, think...
Extravascular = Anaplasmosis, look for icterus, carried by Rocky Mountain Wood tick and others

Intravascular = Babesiosis, look for hemoglobinuria, carried by Boophilus ticks. Could also be Leptospirosis.

This disease causes abortions and stillbirths in ruminants, and sometimes severe hemolysis.

What is the usual means of transmission to ruminants?

Water/substances contaminated with infected urine, usually in spring and fall.

What is the recommended treatment for Leptospirosis?
1. Tetracycline for 3-5d
2. Routine vaccination for endemic areas, or in outbreaks to lessen mortalities.


A whole flock of sheep got into the storeroom and ate the antihelminthics and footbath concentrates that contain copper. What are some signs you should expect to see?
Death, icterus and marked anemia, methemoglobinurua, Heinz bodies, depression, abdominal pain, possibly blue-green feces (think about a rusted penny).

In chronic cases the liver is involved and you will likely see elevated liver enzymes, as well as the gunmetal blue kidneys.

Treatment and prevention for copper toxiticy.
Chelation, fluids, blood transfusions

Don't give horse or pig feed to sheep.

You can also spread Molybdenum-containing fertilizer on the fields to balance the Cu-Mo levels.

You are called out to a farm for a dead, bloated cow out in a dusty field. The animal has tarry blood coming out of all orifices.

Ok, I know you've seen this scenario before, but do you post the animal?

Cut off the ear and send it to a diagnostic lab.

These three enzymes are not useful in evaluating liver function in ruminants.

Match the enzyme with its attribute and usefullness in identifying liver disease. (SDH, AST, GGT)

1. Short half life, sensitive and specific for liver damage.
2. Sensitive and specific for liver damage (except in neonates who get it in their colostrum)
3. Sensitive but not specific because also found in muscle, long half life.
1. Short half life, sensitive and specific for liver damage = SDH
2. Sensitive and specific for cholestasis (except in neonates who get it in their colostrum) = GGT
3. Sensitive but not specific because also found in muscle, long half life = AST

Why are bile acid levels not really helpful for assessing liver function in ruminants?
Because they are always eating, making their bile acid levels stay about the same all of the time.

However a large rise in bile acids is significant.

Where do you perform a liver biopsy in a cow?
On the right side at the 11th ICS

*Liver abscesses are linked to _______ ______ (predisposing disease), and clostridial hepatitis is often secondary to _______ ______.
Liver abscesses are linked to rumen acidosis, and clostridial hepatitis is secondary to fluke migration (remember the clostridia are waiting for the flukes to cause liver damage and make them an anaerobic home).

This is the major bacterium isolated from liver abscesses in ruminants.

How does grain overload lead to liver abscesses?
Fusobacterium necrophorum

High grain diet -> decreased rumen PH -> Rumenitis and bacteria enter the portal circulation -> Bugs seed the liver -> abscesses

Why do you not want to biopsy a liver you suspect has multiple abscesses?
Because you may penetrate one, spreading the infection.

What are some secondary effects of liver abscesses (since secondary problems are usually what kills the cow)?
Peritonitis (ruptured abscess)
Obstruction of the bile duct
Caudal vena cava thrombosis
Metastatic pneumonia (chunks of abscess make it to the lungs), which can lead to aneurysm and severe bloody coughing
Acute death

*Since liver enzymes tend to not be elevated in cases of liver abscesses, what are three signs of chronic inflammation that may point you in that direction?
Elevated globulins, fibrinogen, and increased neutrophils

The main species of liver fluke seen in the US is _____ _______, carried by ____________ in the _________.
Fasciola hepatica, carried by Lymnea snails in mostly the Pacific northwest and the Gulf states.

*What are three diagnostic tests/results that can point to a liver fluke infection?

The white spots on the liver are from new/old infestation, while the black spots are new/old infestations.
Fecal sedimentation
GGT for cholestasis from the flukes blocking the duct

White = old, scar tissue
Black = new, necrosis/damage

Based on the life cycle of liver flukes, when do you treat for them in this area?
About July, which is before the transmission period and before clinical signs.

This disease primarily of sheep is a sequelae to liver fluke infestation, as this anaerobic microbe waits for a chance to gain a foothold from the flukes causing necrosis.
"Black disease"

Clostridium novyi Type B

This disease primarily of cattle is a result of liver flukes and causes hemolysis and hemoglobinuria seen as red urine and is caused by _____ _____. On necropsy, look for _______.
"Red water disease" = Bacillary hemoglobinuria

Clostridium hemolyticum

Multifocal, round areas of necrosis on the liver. (Not enough time for the liver to turn black)

The majority of antibiotics on the market for ruminants were approved for treating _____.
bovine respiratory diseases

*You are called out to a farm where the farmer has just purchased a lot of steers. What are some treatment options to protect the whole herd from disease?
Metaphylaxis: Prophylactic treatment of a group

Draxxin, good for Mycoplasma, $$

Excede: Ceftiofur broad spectrum, long-lasting


These two diseases result in bumps within the nasal cavity, but one is uncommon and usually involves one granuloma from a fungal or bacterial infection, while the other is an allergic response and usually generates multiple nodules.
Uncommon, one or few granulomas: Nasal granulomas

Allergic reaction, multiple nodules: Enzootic Nasal Granuloma/Atopic rhinitis (look for eos in the snot)

T/F Sheep and goats can get a virus that will cause them to develop nasal tumors.
True, it is a nasal adenocarcinoma virus (caprine CNAV or ovine ONAV) and it can give them trouble breathing.

What actions/procedures may lead to sinusitis in ruminants?
Dehorning/disbudding (do it on a nice day when they are young in clean surroundings), infected maxillary teeth

(As an aside, this was likely the cause of death of Rameses, one of the UNC mascot rams, after his son butted off one of his horns and the opening became infected)

Species that causes nasal bots.

Does it affect sheep or goats more?

How can it be treated?
Oestrus ovis

Sheep - they may be snorting/sneezing, with runny noses as the bots are trying to migrate out.

There is no specific treatment but the Avermectins can help.


6 month old beef cattle in a crowded feedlot have painful coughs, are open-mouth breathing and a few animals have died.

What bacteria is usually involved?
Necrotic laryngitis = calf diphtheria or laryngeal necrobacillosis

Our old friend Fusobacterium necrophorum

Pathogen that causes abscessed arytenoid cartilages in ruminants.
Arcanobacterium pyogenes

Presentation of "honker cattle"?

Acutely, animals have dyspnea, usually when it is warm/moist and the animals are heavy. Chronically, lighter animals sometimes have a dry cough.

Tracheal edema syndrome...syndrome usually means we don't know the cause. It may be infectious or traumatic.

What are some things you can do to precondition cattle to prepare them for going to a feedlot?
Wean them and have them learn how to eat from bunks and drink from tanks.

Have them castrated and dehorned.

Parasite treatments and vaccines for respiratory diseases three weeks before shipping to ease their transition to the feedlot.

Avoid taking them to auctions and mixing calves

Some studies show a 23% decrease in morbidity.

*This is the largest cause of economic loss in feedlot calves (29% of all cattle deaths and 60% of feedlot deaths) and is a multifactorial disease.
Respiratory Disease Complex (RDC) = Shipping Fever in beef calves = Enzootic pneumonia in dairy calves = Undifferentiated Respiratory Disease

What are some risk factors for developing enzootic pneumonia?
Nutritional deficiencies
Cold, wet, not enough ventillation
Stress of transport and not adapting well to feedlots/new environments
Calf density too high
Viral infections paving the way for bacterial infections

*What are 4 major viruses associated with the Respiratory Disease Complex that can be managed with vaccines.
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BVH-1) = Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)

Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (PI-3)

Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV)

IBR is a syndrome caused by this virus.

What is a common name given to its presentation.
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BVH-1).

"Red Nose": hyperemia of the muzzle.

There can also be rhinitis, tracheitis, fever, coughing, nasal and ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, abortions

T/F Sheep and goats get the same Herpesvirus as cattle that causes IBR.
False, like everlasting Gobstoppers, every species gets their own personal Herpesvirus.

What anti-inflammatory drug is ok for use in cattle?

This bacteria likes to hang out with BVDV and they are commonly isolated together.
Pasteurella sp.

This respiratory virus of cattle is known for causing explosive outbreaks with high morbidity and key signs are subcutaneous emphysema/intermandibular edema.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

*Match the descriptions with the general categories of pneumonia (Bronchial, Interstitial, Metastatic)

1.Fever, depression, A-V pattern of lung sounds, often caused by infectious agents that enter the respiratory tract.

2. Septic emboli reach the lungs creating abscesses and infarctions.

3. Usually noninfectious (toxins, allergens), animals usually not depressed, with diffuse lung lesions that don't respond well to antibiotics.
1. Bronchial
2. Metastatic
3. Interstitial

This drug has recently been approved for treating BRDC, particularly those with Mycoplasmal infections.

What two bacterial vaccines are available for respiratory diseases?
Manheimia (Pasteurella)

Haemophilus somni

*Causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP)
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type

- Eradicated in the US in 1892
- Young goats get polyarthritis and pneumonia from the large colony type from their mom's colostrum (which can also cause a mastitis in the does)

How can liver abscesses cause Vena Caval thrombosis and pneumonia?
The abscesses break off and are carried in the blood to the lungs, setting up a metastatic pneumonia.

Emboli can lodge in the Vena Cava, creating an aneurysm that bursts, flooding the bronchi with blood = blood on the stall walls

Remember you can get liver abscesses from grain overload.

What foods can lead to ARDS?
Lush pasture
Moldy sweet potatoes
Perilla mint
Brassica (kale, turnips, etc)

What causes Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema and Emphysema (ABPEE)

Other names for this disease?

What does it look like?
A change from dry/little forage to lush green pastures ->
L-tryptophan is converted to 3-methylindole in the rumen, which is toxic to the lungs

"Fog Fever", "Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia"

Multiple animals present with respiratory distress, frothing at the mouth, but not coughing.

What are two things that can cause subcutaneous emphysema in cattle?
1. ABPEE -> sudden change to lush pasture

How can you diagnose Dictyocaulus viviparous in a cow you suspect has parasitic pneumonia?
Baerman fecal sedimentation test

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia is also called this...

What does it look like?
Maedi-Visna, "thin ewe syndrome" or "hard bag"

Maedi = dyspnea
Visna = neurologic

Adult sheep have slow weight loss, posterior paresis, arthritis and progressive pneumonia, exercise intolerance, dyspnea

How can you diagnose OPP?
How can you control the disease in a herd?
AGID is your test of choice
Can also do ELISA, IFA

Cull positive animals
Artificially rear offspring so they do not pick it up from the adults

What is the target organ for Type I Hypersensitivities in ruminants?

How can you treat them?
The lung -> treat with epinephrine

You see a goat that has dorsomedial strabismus of its eyes, is circling, bumping into things, and has been having trouble prehending food. Where do you localize the lesion?
Diffuse forebrain disease -> Associate with energy metabolism issues


You are on a farm where a cow is drooling out in the field and it seems mentally dull. However, when other cows walk by this cow is aggressive to them and it is making odd noises, almost like it is choking.

It should always be on your differential list for neurologic disease, just to be safe.

How do we diagnose rabies?
There is no good antemortem test, and so we do IFA's on fresh brain tissues. (Braaaiiins...)

What are the types of polioencephalomalacia and how are they caused?
1. Thiamine-responsive:
a. High carb diets/lush pasture leads to an overgrowth of thiaminase-producing bacteria ->
b. Brackenfern contains thiaminases
c. Thiamine analogues (long-term use of amprolium, levamisole, etc)

2. Sulfur-induced: (thought to be the main cause)
a. Alfalfa, corn, sugarcane and other sources of sulfur leads to H2S made in the rumen, which enters the CNS via the lungs through burping.

What other diseases cause similar pathologic changes to polioencephalomalacia?
Lead poisoning
Salt intoxication

Seen as laminar cortical necrosis

T/F You can unofficially diagnose thiamine-responsive PEM by giving thiamine and looking for an improvement.

What are sources of lead found on farms that cattle get into?
Trash in the pasture: motor oil, grease, batteries

You can test for lead levels in the blood to diagnose lead poisoning, but why must you do this early in the disease?
Because over time the lead moves from the blood into the bones where you will not find it.

*What is one characteristic finding of lead poisoning that is not common with polioencephalomalacia, since they both present similarly?
Lead poisoning can cause GI signs

How can you treat cows with lead poisoning?
1. Thiamine, it can't hurt and it may be PEM
2. Remove the source of the lead
3. Chelation

There is some concern the lead can make it into the meat of these animals, posing a human health risk.

We've covered salt toxiticy many times, but what are some signs you might see in a cow that can help you determine that it is salt toxicity versus PEM, Lead or Rabies since they all cause generalized forebrain signs?
Colic, fluid-filled rumen, diarrhea, cardiac arrhythmias, hemoglobinuria (other areas are edematous from the water flooding in at the same time the brain is) and a fever.

How do you treat cattle with salt toxicity?
1. Replace water slowly over a couple of days
2. Furosemide can increase renal excretion of sodium to get it out of the body

TEME = __________, caused by ________ (bug)
Thromboembolic Meningoencephalitis

Histophilus somni

Localize the lesion:

Incoordination, intention tremors that subside at rest, may have a lack of menace response, a wide-based stance, but no weakness.

Congenital cerebellar hypoplasia can occur if the dam is infected with ________.
BVDV, if the calf is exposed between 100-200 days of gestation, the virus destroys the developing germinal layer of the cerebellum.

** Not progressive


A couple of sheep in a herd have had cerebellar signs and pruritis (rubbing the wool off of their sides). By the time you get on the farm, one animal is having seizures and the other is recumbent.

What tests can you do to definitively diagnose this disease?

Histo: Vacuolated neurons (brain that looks like swiss cheese) looks like other prion diseases.

IFA on lymphoid tissues antemortem

With brainstem disease, you can see deficits with cranial nerves ______ though ______.
III through XII

(Your olfactory and optic nerves are too busy going to your eyes and nose to stop by the brainstem)

T/F You can see Horner's syndome as a sign of peripheral nerve disease in ruminants (say if a goat injures his neck by getting his head stuck in a fence)
False, you don't see Horner's syndrome as a sign of peripheral disease in ruminants because the sympathetic nerves run differently in these species.

T/F A drooping ear on one side can be a sign of facial nerve paralysis in a ruminant.

What is your #1 differential for a cow with signs of central vestibular disease (such as a head tilt, falling over, a vertical nystagmus)?

What are some other causes of central vestibular disease in ruminants?
Listeriosis (L. monocytogenes)

Also brain abscesses, rabies, parasitic encephalitis, TEME and trauma.


Mostly a disease of adults, may affect multiple animals and seen more in cold, wet conditions and feeding poor-quality silage. The organism may enter abrasions in the mouth and travel up CN V, causing an acute onset of brainstem dysfunction, ataxia, and paresis.

With spinal cord disease, what is the progression of signs (starting with the first lost which is also the last to come back?)
Proprioception → Voluntary Movement → Superficial pain → Deep pain


Several of the three month old kids on a farm have signs ranging from mild hindlimb weakness to tetraparesis, and some have painful joints.

How do you treat this?
CAE: Caprine Arthritis Encephalomyeltitis

It is progressive and treatment is not useful so prevention is key:
1. Separate the kids from the dams
2. Treat the colostrum/milk with heat
3. Don't bring in new animals
4. Serology from time to time as surveillance

What is the cause of Enzootic Ataxia aka "Delayed Swayback"?

What does it look like?

Copper deficiency, either absolute or relative (too much Mo or S throwing off the balance).

Lambs and kids 3-12 weeks old start showing LMN signs that are progressive (paraparesis to tetraparesis, ataxia, and can have diarrhea, spontaneous fractures and a poor haircoat)

Treat it by giving them the copper they need.

_______ is the cause of 17% of carcass condemnations.

What should you do on any ocular exam of a ruminant?
OSCC (Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma)

A neuro exam (the eyes are part of the CNS after all)

What are some risks of doing orbital blocks?
Globe proptosis, globe penetration, optic nerve damage, orbital hemorrhage, sudden death.

Cyclopia in sheep: agent, time of ingestion, other signs.
Veratrum californicum

Day 14 of gestation

Cyclopia, anophthalmia (no eye), synophthalmia (both eyes fused)

What can a Vitamin A deficiency in the sow cause in her piglets?

What can cause this presentation in a calf?
Microphthalmia/anopthalmia/retinal dysplasia


For defining strabismus...
Esotropia =
Exotropia =
Esotropia = convergent strabismus, crosseyed

Exotropia = eyes pointing out

Which tends to be more severe and cause more problems in ruminants, primary or secondary glaucoma?
Secondary, maybe because you then have the inciting cause (neoplasia, uveitis, etc) along with the glaucoma.

**Infectious keratoconjunctivitis has a similar presentation across species (blepharospasm, epiphora, conjunctival hypermia, possibly ulceration) but what pathogens are the main culprits in cattle, sheep, and goats?
Cattle: Moraxella bovis + Mycoplasma + IBR (BHV-1)

Sheep: Chlamydophila

Goats: Mycoplasma

How do you control Moraxella bovis in a herd of cattle?
Remember if you got pinkeye they told you not to touch it because you could give it to others?

Decrease the fly population that is carrying the Moraxella between the cows' eyes. Isolate the affected animals, protect them from UV light, and vaccines can reduce the length and severity of the infection.

*Which stage of the Chlamydophila life cycle is susceptible to antibiotics?
The reticulate body form, while it's in the host's cells, oddly enough.

Most of the causes of bacterial conjunctivitis in ruminants are sensitive to _______, and you can also treat their pain with...

NSAID's, atropine for anterior uveitis, and surgery if there is a perforation.

Ocular squamous cell carcinoma is usually _______ (invasive/nonnvasive) if caught early, and it likes to metastasize _____ (early/late), with a higher incidence of appearing at the _______ (medial/lateral) limbus of the eye.
Noninvasive, Mets late, and likes the lateral limbus

Retinal degeneration is heritable in the _______ breed of goat, but can also be acquired from...
Toggenburg goat

Aquired from: brackenfern, locoweed, lambsquarters, male fern, BVD, Hypovitaminosis A, parasiticides.

What is being described?

- The most common cause of transient diarrhea in ruminants
- Often after a sudden dietary change and altering the rumen flora
- Moldy/spoiled feed, damaged feed, indigestible roughage, too much feed, new feed, too much grain
- Usually involves multiple animals
Simple indigestion

T/F With BVDV, the cytopathic biotypes are more virulent than the non-cytopathic ones.
False, as there is a lot of variation among the individual strains (Types 1 and 2) and being cytopathic does not correlate with virulence.

Even though we associate BVDV with diarrhea (and lots of other things), what is the hallmark lesion?
Oral mucosal erosions

What about BVDV makes it such a problem? (Not just from a GI standpoint)
1. **It causes immunosuppression, paving the way for other diseases
2. Some strains cause hemorrhage from thrombocytopenia
3. Fetal infections, leading to losses, cerebellar hypoplasia, cataracts, and persistently infected calves

How can you diagnose acute and persistently-infected animals with BVDV?
Acute: HSL, paired serology (4x rise in titers in 4 weeks), virus isolation from buffy coat, IFA, PCR in unvaccinated animals, *Peyers patch necrosis on necropsy

PI's: *Monoclonal antibody stain of an ear notch. A PI animal will show staining around the hair follicles, not just on the surface like an acutely affected animal.

How does the mucosal disease form of BVDV come about?
** Know that calves are never born with this form, it is acquired

1. Fetus is exposed to a non-cytopathic strain in utero before 125 days to become a PI calf

2. This calf is exposed to an antigenically-similar cytopathic strain (so it gets to infect all it wants) that causes acute, severe mucosal damage that is always fatal.

If you see severe lymphopenia in a young cow, think this disease.
BVDV -> Immunosuppressive

May also have thrombocytopenia and other low immune cell counts.

Winter dysentery is thought to be caused by a __________ for several reasons, including its isolation during outbreaks.

What does Winter Dysentery usually look like?

Acute, profuse, transient diarrhea that is often dark or bloody, usually an explosive outbreak in a herd in the winter in the northern US when cattle are housed together.

About 1/3 of US dairy herds have this bacteria, which is often from contaminated feed (such as unsterilized animal/fish products in feed) or interaction with other species and is transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

It's ready to cause diarrhea anywhere, for any length of time, in any age animal.


You see a three year old dairy cow that is thin with chronic, effortless, watery diarrhea.

Causative agent?
Johne's disease

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

1. What is annoying about trying to culture for the Johne's disease organism?

*2. What do you look for on a fecal smear if you are trying to diagnose it that day?

3. What other options are available?
1.It is the gold standard but is extremely slow...about four months incubation time and you may still get a negative result. PCR takes two months.

2. Clumped acid-fast staining bacilli

3. ELISA or AGID for regulatory use or monitoring.

What causes the wasting and diarrhea in Johne's disease?

Since small ruminants do not often show the classic diarrhea, what can you look for?
A protein-losing enteropathy from a thickened ileum. The cow cannot absorb nutrients well with all of the granulomatous inflammation and so nutrition passes through.

For small ruminants, look for chronic wasting with decreased TP and albumin, along with anemia.

What are some things to remember about the Johne's vaccine and its use in this state?
- The state vet has to give you permission to use it, but you can also no longer use it in NC for control
- It causes a permanent, huge granuloma at the site of injection
- You can only vaccinate calves
- The vaccine will interfere with TB and Johne's testing
- It can be hazardous if injected into a human
- It will not prevent the disease but may lessen the signs, and its efficacy is questionable

This is a parasitic cause of chronic diarrhea in ruminants.

- Usually animals become immune as they mature
- Can cause bottle jaw from hypoproteinemia

**90% of lameness is in the ______ (foot/leg), 90% of which is in the _____ (front/rear), 90% of which is in the _____ ______.
90% of lameness is in the foot
90% of foot lameness in rear feet
90% of rear foot lameness in lateral claw

Sole ulcers are most often in the ______ (lateral/medial) claw, and are a form of what?

*If you decide to apply a hoof block after correctively trimming a sole ulcer, which toe does it go on?
In the lateral claw (which makes sense since it carries more weight).

They are a form of asceptic necrosis of the horn, which can look like a black/red spot in the hoof as you trim it.

The block goes on the good toe. **It won't speed healing or make her sound, but it will lessen the pain.


You see a lame dairy cow with very long claws on her feet that almost look like slippers and have a groove in their dorsal surfaces.

"hardship groove" - it may have been one episode of grain overload that caused this change

What predisposes a cow to developing solar abscesses?
Softened hooves (moisture, laminitis)

Excessive wear (walking, overtrimming)

Foreign bodies


You are called out to a farm to observe a lame, large, and irritable older dairy bull named Grumpy (he used to be Happy). Before you risk life and limb to inspect his feet, what does the presentation make you think?

What will you likely need to do to treat it?
He likely has a corn (interdigital fibroma) since he is a heavy older dairy bull.

Since he is lame, you will likely need to (heavily) sedate him and trim it out.

How do you correct a vertical hoof crack to prevent it from spreading and reaching the coronary band?
Borrow a Dremel from us avian vets and sand the edges of the crack so it is smooth. For bad cases you can pack it with hoof acrylic.


You examine several lame dairy heifers that have bulbous, hairy growths sprouting from the backs of their rear feet.

What are some ways you can treat these animals and prevent it from happening again?
Hairy Heel Warts = Digital dermatitis, caused by a spirochete bacteria (Treponema if asked, but it's not definitive)

- Oxytetracycline on cotton balls/gauze in a bandage for a day is your best choice (sprays are not as effective but good for outbreaks). You can also surgically remove the very bad warts.

- Try to get the environment drier, ask the person who trims to disinfect the hoof-trimming equipment between cows


A young beef steer in a wet feedlot is lame with a bilaterally swollen rear foot and it smells bad.

Though it may resolve once ground dries, what can you do now to treat it?
Foot rot, caused by anaerobic G- bacteria, notably Fusobacterium necrophorum.

A parenteral antibiotic is preferable in beef cattle since it is hard to bandage and manage their feet. Penicillin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline are options.

What is the main agent that causes foot rot in sheep?

How does it happen?
Dichelobacter nodosus

Virulent strains carry a protease that breaks down the horn and makes it separate from the germinal layer. Carrier animals seed the soil with the organism.


You are driving by a flock of sheep on your way to the beach after finals and see them kneeling down to eat the grass.
Foot rot