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174 Cards in this Set

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how can you tell how old a cow is
fromt heir incisors
first incisor erupts
18-24 months 1.5 year
second `incisors erupt when
2.5 year
third incisors erupt when
3.5
fourth incisor erupts when
4.5 until 5 then they are adults
how can you tell if the incisiors are permanent
they are much larger than the deciduous
what is the life span of a cow?
feedlot 18 months
dairy cow 5 years
pet early 20's
what can cause teeth to wear down faster?
living in nebraska... well anywhere there is a bunch of sand
camelids. do they have upper incisiors
no
what do they have sometimes,, camelids
fighting teeth
what do you have to be careful of when examining a camel mouth
the fighting teeth
do ruminants get cavities
not really
what happens to teeth with head trauma
fractrued teeth
if you have an animal that is losing weight. what should you do first before a ton of diagnostics
oral exam
who are tooth root abscesses common in
camelids
what is the pathonemonic way to tell if camels having tooth root abscesses
salivation, quid ding, mandibular swelling
if you see a cow with a lump on the jaw what is it
its lumpy jaw until proven otherwise
if you see a camel with a lump on the jaw what is it
tooth root abscess until proven otherwise
how do you dx a tooth root abscess
rads
how do you tx a tooth root abscess
long term abx-early
surgical removal with long term abx is the only way to cure the problem
may have other infected teeth later
what is the problem with giving camelids abx for 6-8 weeks
well can't give ruminants oral abx they won't work have to give injectable
what is gummers
old sheep that have completely worn off their incisors
sandy environnment or rough forages
ptyalism what is it a big sign of
RABIES!!!!
wear gloves!
d/dx: esophageal obstruction, stomatitis (VS, FMD, BVDV), rumen dysfunction, pseudorabies, toxicants
when the rumen is acidotic what will the cows body try to do to accommodate
produce a fuck ton of saliva
what causes wooden tongue NAVLE
actinobacillus lignieresii
where does a. ligieresii
normal inhabitant of mouth and rumen
mucosal lesions carry the bacteria into the soft tissues
causes granulomatous abscesses
what is the presenting comlaint of wooden tongue
can't prehend food. their tongue is like wood
then
excess salivation, tongue may protrude from mouth,
how do you dx actinobacillus ligiersii
navle- take pus put in between two slides- sulfur granules .
can do a C&S. but if it looks like wooden tongue it pretty much is.
how do you tx a. ligiersii
sodium iodide
repeat in 7 days
can treat q 3 days if refractory
can be given in conjugation with abx like oxytet
what is the route of admin of sodium iodide
IV has to be IV its very irritating. usually one dose will be enough
what CS will you see with iodine toxicity
salivation, lacrimatino, urinattion, excessive defecation, big flakes of dandruff on the back of the ruminnats
what is the bacteria in lumpy jaw
actinomyces boivis
where does a. bovis live
normal inhabitant of ruminant oral cavity
enters through injured mucosa
how does a. bovis present
lumpy jaw. in the bone. really firm
d/dx for lumpy jaw
tooth root absecess , fracture, tumors
dx of a. bovis
pus crushed between glass slides will have sulfur granules like actinobacillus
rads
central radiolucent area of osteomyelitis
is lumpy jaw permanent
yes it has permanent effects on the jaw
tx of a. bovis
sodium iodide
what are the vesicular dzs
bluetongue
vesicular stomatitis
foot and mouth
bovine viral diarrhea
malignant catarrhal fever
who gets blue tongue
sheep, cattle can get it but its rare, and goats even rarer
insect that speeds it culicoides
what time of year does blue tongue happen
mid summer to fall during vector season
morb and mort of blue tongue
morb 100%
mort usually 0-50%
what time of year does blue tongue happen
mid summer to fall during vector season
incubation period of blue tongue
1-3 weeks
morb and mort of blue tongue
morb 100%
mort usually 0-50%
c/s blue tongue
salivation, tongue vasculitis cyanotic, lips will be swollen. hyperemia of those tissues initially will turn blue when losign blood supply if hte animal is pre go can have reabsorption abortion
incubation period of blue tongue
1-3 weeks
c/s specific for blue tongue
oral erosions and ulcerations, tongue swollen, protruding, cyanotic= blue tongue, feet- sore hooves, lameness, coronitis (corny band swelling)
c/s blue tongue
salivation, tongue vasculitis cyanotic, lips will be swollen. hyperemia of those tissues initially will turn blue when losign blood supply if hte animal is pre go can have reabsorption abortion
if the lameness comes first with blue tongue what do you tell the owner
you have to tell them to keep looking in the mouth to dif from foot rot
c/s specific for blue tongue
oral erosions and ulcerations, tongue swollen, protruding, cyanotic= blue tongue, feet- sore hooves, lameness, coronitis (corny band swelling)
dx of blue tonue
history, labs virous isolation while febrile, ELISA, AGID, notify state vet just because
if the lameness comes first with blue tongue what do you tell the owner
you have to tell them to keep looking in the mouth to dif from foot rot
tx of blue tongue
supportive care
rumen fistula- feed and water
dx of blue tonue
history, labs virous isolation while febrile, ELISA, AGID, notify state vet just because
px of blue tongue
spray area for culicoides
tx of blue tongue
supportive care
rumen fistula- feed and water
what is orf
contagious ecthyma (not a vesicular dz, appears as one)
zoonotic of small ruminants
viral (parapox) cause of oral lesions
proliferative
px of blue tongue
spray area for culicoides
what time of year does blue tongue happen
mid summer to fall during vector season
what is orf
contagious ecthyma (not a vesicular dz, appears as one)
zoonotic of small ruminants
viral (parapox) cause of oral lesions
proliferative
morb and mort of blue tongue
morb 100%
mort usually 0-50%
incubation period of blue tongue
1-3 weeks
c/s blue tongue
salivation, tongue vasculitis cyanotic, lips will be swollen. hyperemia of those tissues initially will turn blue when losign blood supply if hte animal is pre go can have reabsorption abortion
c/s specific for blue tongue
oral erosions and ulcerations, tongue swollen, protruding, cyanotic= blue tongue, feet- sore hooves, lameness, coronitis (corny band swelling)
if the lameness comes first with blue tongue what do you tell the owner
you have to tell them to keep looking in the mouth to dif from foot rot
dx of blue tonue
history, labs virous isolation while febrile, ELISA, AGID, notify state vet just because
tx of blue tongue
supportive care
rumen fistula- feed and water
px of blue tongue
spray area for culicoides
what is orf
contagious ecthyma (not a vesicular dz, appears as one)
zoonotic of small ruminants
viral (parapox) cause of oral lesions
proliferative
what time of year does blue tongue happen
mid summer to fall during vector season
morb and mort of blue tongue
morb 100%
mort usually 0-50%
incubation period of blue tongue
1-3 weeks
c/s blue tongue
salivation, tongue vasculitis cyanotic, lips will be swollen. hyperemia of those tissues initially will turn blue when losign blood supply if hte animal is pre go can have reabsorption abortion
c/s specific for blue tongue
oral erosions and ulcerations, tongue swollen, protruding, cyanotic= blue tongue, feet- sore hooves, lameness, coronitis (corny band swelling)
if the lameness comes first with blue tongue what do you tell the owner
you have to tell them to keep looking in the mouth to dif from foot rot
dx of blue tonue
history, labs virous isolation while febrile, ELISA, AGID, notify state vet just because
tx of blue tongue
supportive care
rumen fistula- feed and water
px of blue tongue
spray area for culicoides
what is orf
contagious ecthyma (not a vesicular dz, appears as one)
zoonotic of small ruminants
viral (parapox) cause of oral lesions
PROLIFERATIVE
when is orf more common
spring
C/S of orf
proliferative lsions
thick, brown to black crust form rapidly and most evident at commissures of mouth
may spread to oral cavity to feet, eyelids, and teats, mastitis due to compromised teat
xmission of orf
direct contact or indirectly through environmental contaminants
pox gains entry through abrasions. coarse feeds ad plants that injure oral mucous
treatmetn of orf
leave the crusts on
wear gloves
prog. of orf
usually full recovery
do you vaccinate for orf
sometimes depends if its in an endemic area
put behind the elbow so they can't lick that area
vesicular stomatitis and foot and mouth disease
difficult to differentiate based on C/S. both diseases affect ruminants and swine, only vesicular stomatitis affects HORSES, both diseases are REPORTABLE
so which vesicular dz is reportable and affects horses
vesicular stomatitis
are sheep and goats really affected by foot and mouth or vesicular stomatitis
not really
what kind of virus is vesicular stomatitis
rhabdoviral dz that causes sporadic outbreak
who does foot and mouth affect
cloved hoofed animals
C/S of vs and fmd
fever, depressed, anorexia, listless, occasional shivering, ptyalism, lameness, decreased milk production and aglactia
vesicular lesions: blisters and bullae 0.5-1.0 cm in diameter
vesicles rupture w/i 48 hours
mucosal slough and large erosion
where do vesicles occur with vs and fmd
pharygeal mucosa, tongue, dental pad, coronary bands, especially the interdigital space, teat lesions are common with both virus
dx of VS and FMD
we don't do it, we see signs and then the state vet does it , they will tell us which tests
pathogenesis of VS
cow to cow
milking machine
shared feed/water
insects
when are outbreaks common for VS
summer/ fall
pathgeneiss of fmd
aerosols
morb/ mort of vs and fmd
morb-100%
mort- 100%
everyone with fmd gets euthanized to px the spread of FMD
treatment for vs
reportable- call state vet
quarantine herd until state vet says its ok
treatment of VS is targeted at supportive care
-fluids, abx (2ndary infections), mastitis
tx for fmd
euthanize entire farm
where is malignant catarrhal fever found
africa
what are the types of MCG
african- wildebeest more contagious
sheep
where is malignant catarrhal fever found
africa
MCF epidemiology
survives outside host only a few hours
cattle dead end hosts (cow-sheep-cow)
incubation of MCF
3-10 days
what are the types of MCG
african- wildebeest more contagious
sheep
mort of MCF
100%
MCF epidemiology
survives outside host only a few hours
cattle dead end hosts (cow-sheep-cow)
acute form of MCF
high fever and inapetence
bilateral corneal opacity
oculonasal discharge
serous then purulent
salivation
erosions buccal papillae
skin erythematous or ulcerated
hardened scabs may develop, particularly on the perineum, udder and teats
horn and hoof covering may be loosesned to sloughing
incubation of MCF
3-10 days
D/dx of MCR from IBR
IBR doesn't give you necrotic tissue or scabbing
mort of MCF
100%
what will MCR do to the GIT
ulcers everywhere in the GIT
acute form of MCF
high fever and inapetence
bilateral corneal opacity
oculonasal discharge
serous then purulent
salivation
erosions buccal papillae
skin erythematous or ulcerated
hardened scabs may develop, particularly on the perineum, udder and teats
horn and hoof covering may be loosesned to sloughing
other CS of MCR
SNOTTY!!!
D/dx of MCR from IBR
IBR doesn't give you necrotic tissue or scabbing
what will MCR do to the GIT
ulcers everywhere in the GIT
other CS of MCR
SNOTTY!!!
d/dx VS/ FMD/ MCF/ Bluetongue
MCF has diarrhea
MCF has high mort
blue tongue is rare in cattle
all of them have oral ulcers ad vesciles
pathophysiology of MCF
goes into T lympocytes and into lymph nodes
MCF tx
supportive care
fluid therapy
keep sheep away from cattle
keep cattle away from wildebeest
Bovine viral diarrhea virus
causes major immune suppression
what are the two biotypes of BVD
cyotpathic
non-cytopathic- persistenly infected calves.
mucosal dz when they can fatally bleed out
PI + cytopathic= mucosal dz
BVD is spread how
oral/nasal route
acute or persistently infected shed the virus
mucus
saliva
feces and urine
xmitted by equipment , semen, fetal calf serum, and biting insects
is type 1 or type 2 BVD worse
type 2
xmission of BVD
can be vertical (dam to calf)
herd mates (because on the nose)
d/dx VS/ FMD/ MCF/ Bluetongue
MCF has diarrhea
MCF has high mort
blue tongue is rare in cattle
all of them have oral ulcers ad vesciles
what is the typical herd history of BVD
herd has a history of inadequate immunization
no MLV or klilled vax followed by booster
animals are purchased
screeding tests for BVD not performed
new purchases are not isolated
acute disease/abortions or early embryonic deaths begin in approximately 2 weeks
pathophysiology of MCF
goes into T lympocytes and into lymph nodes
MCF tx
supportive care
fluid therapy
keep sheep away from cattle
keep cattle away from wildebeest
what do subclinical infections look like with BVD
majority doesn't develop CS
immune suppression from virus
susceptible to other infections
pneumonia
Bovine viral diarrhea virus
causes major immune suppression
what are the two biotypes of BVD
cyotpathic
non-cytopathic- persistenly infected calves.
mucosal dz when they can fatally bleed out
PI + cytopathic= mucosal dz
BVD is spread how
oral/nasal route
acute or persistently infected shed the virus
mucus
saliva
feces and urine
xmitted by equipment , semen, fetal calf serum, and biting insects
is type 1 or type 2 BVD worse
type 2
d/dx VS/ FMD/ MCF/ Bluetongue
MCF has diarrhea
MCF has high mort
blue tongue is rare in cattle
all of them have oral ulcers ad vesciles
xmission of BVD
can be vertical (dam to calf)
herd mates (because on the nose)
d/dx VS/ FMD/ MCF/ Bluetongue
MCF has diarrhea
MCF has high mort
blue tongue is rare in cattle
all of them have oral ulcers ad vesciles
pathophysiology of MCF
goes into T lympocytes and into lymph nodes
pathophysiology of MCF
goes into T lympocytes and into lymph nodes
what is the typical herd history of BVD
herd has a history of inadequate immunization
no MLV or klilled vax followed by booster
animals are purchased
screeding tests for BVD not performed
new purchases are not isolated
acute disease/abortions or early embryonic deaths begin in approximately 2 weeks
MCF tx
supportive care
fluid therapy
keep sheep away from cattle
keep cattle away from wildebeest
MCF tx
supportive care
fluid therapy
keep sheep away from cattle
keep cattle away from wildebeest
what do subclinical infections look like with BVD
majority doesn't develop CS
immune suppression from virus
susceptible to other infections
pneumonia
Bovine viral diarrhea virus
causes major immune suppression
Bovine viral diarrhea virus
causes major immune suppression
what are the two biotypes of BVD
cyotpathic
non-cytopathic- persistenly infected calves.
mucosal dz when they can fatally bleed out
PI + cytopathic= mucosal dz
what are the two biotypes of BVD
cyotpathic
non-cytopathic- persistenly infected calves.
mucosal dz when they can fatally bleed out
PI + cytopathic= mucosal dz
BVD is spread how
oral/nasal route
acute or persistently infected shed the virus
mucus
saliva
feces and urine
xmitted by equipment , semen, fetal calf serum, and biting insects
BVD is spread how
oral/nasal route
acute or persistently infected shed the virus
mucus
saliva
feces and urine
xmitted by equipment , semen, fetal calf serum, and biting insects
is type 1 or type 2 BVD worse
type 2
is type 1 or type 2 BVD worse
type 2
xmission of BVD
can be vertical (dam to calf)
herd mates (because on the nose)
xmission of BVD
can be vertical (dam to calf)
herd mates (because on the nose)
what is the typical herd history of BVD
herd has a history of inadequate immunization
no MLV or klilled vax followed by booster
animals are purchased
screeding tests for BVD not performed
new purchases are not isolated
acute disease/abortions or early embryonic deaths begin in approximately 2 weeks
what is the typical herd history of BVD
herd has a history of inadequate immunization
no MLV or klilled vax followed by booster
animals are purchased
screeding tests for BVD not performed
new purchases are not isolated
acute disease/abortions or early embryonic deaths begin in approximately 2 weeks
what do subclinical infections look like with BVD
majority doesn't develop CS
immune suppression from virus
susceptible to other infections
pneumonia
what do subclinical infections look like with BVD
majority doesn't develop CS
immune suppression from virus
susceptible to other infections
pneumonia
acute BVD infection
immunocompetent cattle that are not persistently infected
cattle 6-24 moths
caused by NCP or CP virus
fever 104-106
persistently infected BVD
infecion of fetus wit noncytophatic BVDV isolates before the development of fetal immunocompeteince preg. dam infected befre 100 days of pre go
mucoasal dz
persitiently infected
get the CP
virus adheres andd destroys platelets
bleeding from inj sites
epistxix
bloody diarrhea
hyperma
dx of BVD
virus isolation (buffy coat or nasal swab for acute infxn)
antigen detection tests
what does an ear notch mean for a cow
its submitted for pcr to see if that calf is a PI
tx for BVD
most are self-limiting
supportive care
vax for BVD
is one of 4 core vaccines
can use MLV- don't use in pre go
Killed use for pregnant
px of BVD
biosecurity
have to test
is late
if there is a PI immediately remove from farm
ear notch babies
choke in cow
usually from fruits and veggies (round) also hedge apples
in cattle may present as an emergency due to development of bloat secondary to complete esophageal obstruction
CS of choke in a cow
anxiety
salivation
dysphagia
anoexia
what can choke do to the esophagus
erode it
what is scary for choke
after you get the stuff out the damage
treatment of choke
assess the rumen if the cow looks like a tick and resp rate is fast/shallow you have to address the bloat before you address the choke.
can try to pass a stomach tube to push down the whatever into the stomach but if that doesn't work you have to trocharize the rumen
can give oxytocin to relax the mm. in esophagus
lidocaine in choke 100 ml in stomach tube let it sit put a tube in again and push the object into the rumen
megaesophagus
not uncommon in camelids
it has been observed following pharyngeal trauma as a congeal disorder (maybe neuromuscular origin)
few case reports of sarcyocystic
CS of megaesophagus
reurgurg
weight loss
aspiration pneumonia
dx an tx of megaesohagus
contrast rads
generally at thoracic inlet
tx is unrewarding
feed upright- they are grazers this is really hard to do. rumen fluid pours out of their nose and mouth when they try to eat
metoclopramide
sucralfate
cimetidine