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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Product Development?
the strategic, creative, technical and production planning of goods with a perceived value for a well-defined user group
What is the “apparel supply chain”?
The network of fiber, textile and findings (trim, thread, labels) suppliers; apparel product developers; manufacturers and contractors; and all the channels of apparel distribution that work together to deliver apparel products to the consumer
what is the linear apparel supply chain?
- fiber production
-textile production
- apparal design/manufacturing
-end consumer
do todays suply chain members function as an integrated unit or as undependent businiesses?
integrated units
true or false- today,products are more geared toward niche markets
what dose an Agile Manufacturing Environment demand?
that companies identify their core competencies and partner with other specialists to support the development and distribution of goods
what are some examples of Auxiliary Businesses?
Forecasting Services
Factors (credit agents)
Testing Labs
Software Providers
Color Labs
what is the purpose of an auxiliary business?
to provide expertise that improves the efficiency of the entire chain
define Growth industry and give an example
they produce products that have not yet saturated a marketplace – e.g. cellular phones, PDA’s, digital cameras, etc
define mature industy and give an example
Mature industries produce products that command relatively stable sales from year to year and have a high level of competition – e.g. Apparel
what are some Strategies for Success in Mature Industries?
gain market share from the competition

have a Differential Advantage that will give you a competitive edge

Lower price

superior quality

unique product


vertical integration
describe Vertical Integration
Strategy that consolidates a supply chain by acquiring a company/companies at another stage in the chain

Fully vertical manufacturer seeks to control all the processes

Can impact the firm’s competitive advantage
what are some Positive Impacts of Successful Vertical Integration?
Right time – shortening of cycle times

Right product - Uniqueness/customized

Right price – elimination of supply chain members results in lower costs
what are some advantages of Manufacturer-owned stores
-aids to success in a mature industry

-Provides a mean of controlling the distribution of excess goods

-Provides manufacturers with a direct link to their ultimate consumer
what are some advantages of Horizontal Integration? what are some examples?
Acquisition of similar companies to expand market penetration and reduce competition

Can reduce costs

Liz Claiborne purchasing Juicy Couture, Lucky

Federated Department Stores acquiring May, creating Macy*s, Inc.
what dose Diversification help to do?
-capitalize on brand equity
-Increase sales
-Enhance efficiencies
-Increase profit
true or fase- Diversification may be also be achieved through licensing or acquisition of other companies
what is the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) purpose?
abolish all trade restrictions--very important date for apparel trade.
what is the differance between Production (Product Development) & Manufacturing?
Production Includes everything that it takes to create and distribute products

-Involves many supply chain scenarios

Manufacturing-The actual making of the goods in the factory
what dose an Agent do?
Assume responsibility for linking product developers with offshore suppliers
what do Factors do?
Financial middlemen that finance suppliers/manufacturers
what is Character licensing?
granting of the right to use images to selected product developers in return for a fee – e.g. Mickey Mouse, BarbieHarry Potter, etc
define Licensing
when a Brand agrees to license the production of goods to another organization in return for a royalty
what is a Private Label?
Products that are developed and merchandised with labels owned by retailer – most is now developed by retailer’s own product development teams – many are perceived as “brands” by the consumer
what is a Store Brand?
Offer complete assortment of privately developed products under own label, e.g. GAP, J. Crew
when was the Production Era?
during the industrial revolution
when was the Sales Era?
early - mid 20th century
when was the Marketing Era?
late 20th century until present
describe the Consumer Era
when consumers are increasingly able to demand products tailored to them, “mass customization”
what are some ways to forecasting consumer preferences?
-Spending Habits
-Life Stage (Life Cycle)
-Lifestyle Segmentation
describe VALS
tool for lifestyle segmentation
Segmentation identified through consumer surveys
Segments are described by two dimensions, demographics and psychology:
Consumers’ resources, e.g. income, education, etc.
Primary motivation, e.g. ideals, achievement, etc.
Achievement-motivated consumers strive to win approval of others
Self-expressive-motivated people make choices that emphasize individuality
what are some of the VALS segmentations?
what are some Other Market Research Tools for Apparel Product Development?
Trend Forecasting (Ch. 4)
Surveys (inc. online)
Focus Groups
Environmental Scanning
POS Data
Data Mining
Wear Testing
Style Testing
what is Wear-Testing
-Used extensively in active sportswear, e.g. Adidas, Eddie Bauer

-Employees, good customers, celebrities asked to evaluate clothing items before major production takes place in order to modify garments and offer preferred styling, fit, fabric, etc.
what is Style Testing?
-Allows retailers/consumers to view early prototypes and offer opinions

-Sometimes retail buyers are used, sometimes the end consumer via the Internet

-Often companies style test by putting relatively small quantities into “test” stores to determine possible wider distribution
what are the 4 General Consumer Trends impacting Apparel Product Development?
1.Limited Time – less time for shopping, buy apparel when needed, not before

2. Price-driven shopping– lack of store loyalty

3. Casual lifestyle everyday – consumers buy more ‘items’ than ‘outfits’

4. Discretionary dollars used for ‘fashion’ apparel shopping – negative impact on apparel providers
what is The Fashion Cycle?
When is the designer customer ready
to purchase?
Designer lines want to be as near as possible to the introduction stage (high risk)
When is the bridge/better customer ready
to purchase?
growth stage(medium risk)
when is the Discounters/mass merchants/moderate customer ready to purchase?
saturation stage when volume will be high and prices are low (low risk)
define Flop
fashion rejected by all consumer segments almost immediately
define fad
fashion that is quickly accepted and quickly rejected
define trend
less obvious than fad but with powerful long term potential
define Classic/Staple
fashion that gains a high level and long duration of acceptance
define Trickle-down theory
New innovative fashions/styles originate in upper socioeconomic classes and are passed down (e.g. Paris couture)
define Trickle-up
Some unusual fashions/styles developed in lower socioeconomic classes, picked up by upper class and finally adopted by middle class (e.g. streetwear
define Trickle-across
A style can originate within any class and spread horizontally through the population to all groups (e.g. sneakers, athletic wear)
what are some negative aspects of licensing
-Potential/real loss of control
-Quality issues
-Design issues
-Licensee has insufficient capital and/or merchandise management expertise
what are some posotive aspects of licensing
-Royalty fees 5-7%
-Way to expand the brand into new markets/worldwide
-Access to specialty resources/expertise, e.g. shoes, jewelry, cosmetics, handbags, etc.
what is an example of couture (made to order)
dior, chanel
what is an example of designer ready-to-wear
calvin kein, prada
what is an example of bridge sportswear
dana buchman, ellen tracy
what is an example of better sportswear
liz claiborn, GAP
what is an example of moderate/opening price sportswear?
sag harbor, cherokee, wal-mart brands
what is the percentage of customers that but moderate/opening price sportswear?-- below the red line
what are some long term Forecasting Influences?
-Major demographic shifts
-Industry/market changes
-Technological development
-Domestic/global changes
-Political, cultural, or economic alliances
what are some short term Forecasting Influences?
Current events/arts/sports
Pop Culture
TV shows
trend forcasters focus on what three areas?
true or false Synthetics did not exist until just before 1900?
define flax/linien
must be made 100% of flax; if other fibers present, called “linen-like”
what is cotton used for?
denim, drill, chino, madras, oxford, seersucker, toweling, corduroy, velveteen
what is wool used for?
challis, flannel, melton, tartan, worsted, tweed, fleece, cashmere, pashmina
what is silk used for?
brocade, georgette, satin, taffeta, velvet, velour, chiffon
woven fabrics are constructed how?
on looms
what is a warp weave
threads stretched lengthwise in a loom
what is a weft weave?
threads woven crosswise, under and over warp to make fabric
how are Knit fabrics constructed
on knitting machines
-Yarn is formed into interlocking loops
Held on long “needles” on machine
define hide
Skin from large animals
(ex: cowhide)
define skin
skin from smaller animals (ex:pigskin)
define fur
Natural fabric; skin of an animal; with hair left on, most skins are known as fur

-Exceptions to this include sheepskin
sheer fabrics are used for what?
Lingerie, bridal, evening, women’s hosiery
light fabrics are used for what?
Top weight” for shirts, blouses,dresses
medium fabrics are used for what?
Bottom weight for slacks, skirts
med-heavy fabrics are used for what?
Towels, overcoats, drapes, slipcovers
what are heavy fabrics used for?
Winter coats, upholstery, mats, rugs, carpets
define Drape
how a fabric hangs or falls and bends
define hand
tactile quality of fabric; affected by fiber content, construction and finishing
define pattern
created through fabric construction, e.g. jacquard, stripes;or through printing
what is an example of fiber content?
65% polyester/ 35% cotton; communicates serviceability – aesthetics, durability, comfort, care, etc
what is a jacquard
Jacquards are repeatable patterns woven or knitted right into the fabric on special jacquard machines
Example: pashmina/silk shawl with woven on jacquard handlooms in Nepal (photo)
what are product developer's options obtaining prints?
-Selected from a mill’s/converter’s line and ordered
-Selected as above and modified
-Purchased as fabric
-paintings from a design studio
-Designed in-house by product development organization
four forms of Mechanized Printing:
-Screen printing
-Roller printing
-Heat transfer and
-Digital printing
how dose screen printing work
-Applies dye through a mesh screen with areas blocked off, thus creating a pattern
-Different screens are created for each color
-Can be used for fabrics or applied to finished garments such as T-shirts and sweatshirts
-Fabric or garment moves along under a series of screen printing frames automatically
how dose rollder printing work?
-Utilizes a steel cylinder with an outer layer of copper, into which a design is etched
-Each color in the print requires a separate engraved copper roll
-Size of pattern is limited to maximum of 16ins. for apparel and 22 ins. for home furnishings
how dose heat transfer/thermal transfer printing work?
-Dyes are first printed on a special transfer paper
-Paper is placed on fabric and then passed through a heat-transfer printing machine at about 400 degrees Fahrenheit
-Temperature and pressure cause dye to transfer onto fabric
-Produces bright, sharp, fine-line designs, but limited to fabrics with a minimum of 50% synthetic fibers.
how does digital printing work?
-Applies patterns on fabric using computer printer technology
-Patterns created and stored in the computer can be selected , scaled and printed directly onto fabric
-Primarily used to produce sample yardage and small runs
-Great promise for mass customization
what percentage of garment costs depend on the type of fabric used?
The cost difference between many high priced designer clothes and their less expensive “knock-offs” may be found mainly in the fabrics used- T or F?!
DEFINE color
the visual perception of certain wavelengths of light by the retina
define hue
How we distinguish one color family from another
define Chroma
Refers to a color’s saturation or amount of pigment – degree of departure from the neutral of same value
define Chromatic Colors
Colors that have a hue
define Achromatic Colors
Colors that are neutral (black, white, gray)
define Value
How we distinguish light colors from dark colors
define Tints
Light colors (achieved by mixing color with white or with water),also known as pastels
define Shade
Color mixed with black to decrease the value and darken the hue
what is a warm color
yellow, orange, red
cool colors
green, blue, violet
t/f- When merchandise from several categories of same store/division is being offered, color stories must relate
define Seasonal Color Palettes
often developed by the ‘fashion office’ with the influence of the design team
what factors Relate Color Palettes to Target Markets
-Age and Life Stage (children vs. matures)
-Fashion Level (couture, designer, mass markets)
-Skin Tone
-Geographical Location
-End use of apparel
what is the color approval process?
-Seasonal color standards selected
-Master list developed with codes
-Sourcing partners order standards for matching
-Sourcing partners dye several samples of fabric in time to match standard
*These samples are known as lab dips*
Lab dips are measured under at least 2 light sources – what are they?
store lighting and daylight