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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(275-339), set out to write a history of Christianity.
Pliny the Younger-
wrote to Trajan at about 112 CE explaining his decision to execute Christians (which Trajan supported).
church, also referred to political assembly of people in a city
(according to Plutarch) - idea of unjust fear regarding gods, irrationality, bizarre behavior, often leads to atheism.
Diaspora (bible in Septuagint, Greek, philosophical schools, more accessible worship, synagogues) and Palestine (Aramaic and Hebrew, worshipped at the one true Temple, rabbininic scholars).
Essenes- drop out of world and live in Dead Sea communes
Zealots- said that to accomplish God’s vision the Romans had to be kicked out of Palestine and a Jewish state created there.
Pharisees- most strict Jews.
Sadducees- less strict, more likely to be aristocratic
Jesus did not fit the Jew’s criteria for the Messiah.
64 CE- Nero executed Christians because he blamed them for the burning of Rome.
Paul’s letters
Earliest Christian writings are Paul’s letters (50-60 CE). He expects the second coming to happen soon and thus didn’t really consider the long-term of Christianity. Paul was a Jew who had never met Jesus, but he was converted to Christianity by a vision. He starts out preaching to Jews, but they are mostly unreceptive, so he preaches to gentiles (non-Jews). This presents an issue: do gentiles need to be Jewish to be Christian? Paul says no, Peter says yes; Paul wins. Gentiles don’t need to be Jews and Jews can be Jewish Christians (Ebionites). Established precedent of councils. Mosaic law not needed. Paul’s authority was mainly through revelation, charisma, and intelligence (but never knew Jesus); Peter’s is historical, apostolic authority. Paul won.
early Christian rulebook- 90 CE. “welcome traveling teachers but beware of false prophets.” Baptismal rules (you must become a Christian), meal- “Eucharist” or “agape” (love feast). Blood/body, brother/sister language lead other groups to accuse Christians of cannibalism, incest, making Christians realize the need to go public with their beliefs.
(110-160) the God of the Old Testament and who created us was not a benevolent God but an evil one. But, a good God created Jesus to save you. Marcion’s canon- the (edited) Gospel of Luke (no virgin birth nor crucifixion nor references to Jesus being human) and a few letters of Paul. Against marriage.
Clement of Rome
hears about problems of in-fighting between Christians in Corinthian Church (old clergy replaced by new ones) and urges cooperation. Wants Christians to have unity, to do certain things in the same way. Written 95 CE.
also called Sethians. “gnosis,” direct knowledge, revelation. Lots of different strains (ascetic vs. non-ascetic). Simon Magus- claimed he could fly by grace of God but fell. Despite world being created by an evil angel, God’s spirit and image was reflected in man, and some people have a divine spark (the elect). Rejection and reinterpretation of Old Testament. Separation from material world. Say that suffering, etc. is not human’s fault because a bad god created the world. What kind of a god would tempt Adam and Eve in such a way? Valentinus. Revelation is not closed and happens all the time. Body is meaningless. Christ as the bringer of knowledge.
building the case for orthodox
“everywhere, univerisal”
belief that Jesus was not really human but actually God himself. He only seemed to be human. He didn’t actually die on the cross.
Justin Martyr
(100-168 CE) From Palestine, teacher, philosopher. Apologist (apologia, defense).A response to persecution. Going public. Explains that the charges against Christians (are false) by revealing exactly what Christians do during worship. Describes high moral/ethical code of Christians (charity to poor). Says he prays for the Emperor. He is ultimately martyred. Describes a debate with Trypho, a Jew, about how the Jewish scriptures fortell the coming of Christ (and therefore Old Testament is needed, against Marcion). God gave Jews the Mosaic Laws to punish them. Said he went to various philosophy schools and was unfulfilled until he met an old Christian man. Said that the truth of Jesus was open to everyone. Since ancient philosophers sought truth, they were Christians in a way (very open-minded). Strong respect for Classical tradition.
Irenaeus of Lyons
bishop of Gaul, (130-202 CE) Anti-intellectual, says that knowledge is unimportant and faith is all that matters. Argues for apostolic authority and bishop’s authority. His canon: Old Testament, 4 gospels, letters of Paul and a few other letters. If it came from the apostles, it belongs in the canon. Insists Jesus was born of a human mother and died a human, physical death but was divine as well; doesn’t explain how both of these can coexist. Rule of Faith. Delivers criticism against Valentinian Gnostics.
Greek for witness. Martyrdom as being born again. passion” Greek for “passio,” to suffer.
Torture done in public.
Polycarp- his death follows the gospels, and by his death, the life of every living person is changed, arrested 155,
Perpetua and Felicitas, Thecla (note role of family, slaves, social order).
Ignatius of Antioch-
Bishop is the person who has authority is apostolic (historical). This person is the closest to Jesus. Said Jesus was real human and born of woman. “Where the bishop is, Jesus is.” Persecuted (arrested around 110 CE). Ignatius, bishop of Rome, was arrested for being Christian. He begged his fellow Christians NOT to save him. He wanted to be martyred.