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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
greek city state
Forms of government
monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, tyrants
Roman code of laws
12 tables- all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law
aristocracy, made laws for Rome, wealhy land owners
comon farmers/artisans/merchants
form of government held by plebeians- assemblies
government under republic: 2 officials, command army and directed gov't, 1 consul could veto another, limited pwr- 1 year term
Aristocratic branch, 300 members from upper class: later plebeians were admitted, trial assemblies elected tribunes and made laws for common people
in times of crisis could be given absolute power, could only rule for 6 months, chosen by consuls and elected by senate
Gov't philosophy: embrased history, used distinct past to gain insight into own present and future
Stoicism- virtue, reasons and natural law are prime directive
James I and II
I- believed in political absolutism, his mismanaging of funds lead to english civil war, exectuted during civil war
II- was overthrown by Will III in the glorious revolution,
William III
overthrew James II, began modern english parliment--ended monarchial absolutism, established bill of rights, created 1st constittutional monarchy
Charles I and II
I- english civil war- him vs. parliment, parliment won and he was executed
II- considered greatest king, whigs na dtories developed under his rule, established navigation acts, succeeded by James II
under Will II reign, they couldnt levy laws w/o his consent
after civil war, began in 1660 when Charles II was restored as king
british Bill of Rights
created by William III
Habeas corpus
right to a trial, given to brits under the bill of rights
Cabinet system
put together to stop argument between monarchy and government
Petition of rights
sent to parliment saying what they thought their rights should be (the common people)
Oliver Cromwell
became Lord Protector- commander of parlimentary armies during civil war and until charles II was put in power
english civil war
king charles I vs. parliment- parliment thought he was corrupt, parliment won
absolute monarchy
ruler hols all power
Constitutional monarchy
king couldnt levy laws w/o parliment consent, first created bby Will II
Navigation Acts
required use of british ships to carry english trade
Salutary neglect
hands-off policy
british -- american colonists
based on national policies of accumulating bullion, establishing colonies and a merchant marine, and developing industry and mining to attain a favorable balance of trade.
Sugar act
1763- tax on sweets by George III
Proclamation of 1763
nd of the French and Indian War that prohibited settlement by whites on Indian territory. It established a British-administered reservation from west of the Appalachians and south of Hudson Bay to the Floridas and ordered white settlers to withdraw.
french and indian war
North American phase of a war between France and Britain to control colonial territory
Sons of Liberty
formed in 1765 to oppose the Stamp Act- samuel adams
Intolerable acts
Boston's harbour was closed until restitution was made for the tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party; the Massachusetts colony's charter was annulled and a military governor installed; British officials charged with capital offenses could go to England for trial; and arrangement for housing British troops in American houses was revived- led to creation of continental congress
Common Sense
Thomas Paine- bold call for independence
Decisive battles of revolution
Saratoga-induced the French to offer open recognition and military aid- turning point of revolution
Trenton-this victory infused new life into the revolutionary cause, restored confidence in Washington both at home and abroad, strengthened the resolution of Congress, and, coupled with the victory at Princeton a few days later, practically freed New Jersey of British control
Princeton -see above
Lexington and concord- Initial skirmishes between British soldiers and American colonists that marked the beginning of the American Revolution
Yorktown-(1781): the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops
french general, big role
stamp act
taxed all printed goods- in response, colonists created stamp act congress and boycotted english goods
boston massacre
brits killed 5 colonists- added to unpopularity of brits
winter at valley forge
1777 - 1778, George Washington and his army struggled to survive the cold weather and snow at Valley Forge. They did, and emerged a stronger army as a result
Battle of Lexington and concord
The first shots starting the revolution were fired at Lexington, Massachusetts. On April 18, 1775, British General Thomas Gage sent 700 soldiers to destroy guns and ammunition the colonists had stored in the town of Concord, just outside of Boston. They also planned to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock, two of the key leaders of the patriot movement.
A of C
states would be equally represented in the new governing body — each state would have a single vote
A of C
enforcement of laws
pretty much unable to enforce any laws- no president
standards for admitting new states
require 9 states to ratify
Shay's rebellion
a catalyst
- Not enough gold and silver in banks for all the paper money = depression
- Many farmers in debt were sent to jail until they paid them
- Daniel Shays of Massachusetts started the rebellion, 1787, preventing the collection of debts or sale of property for debts
- The mob demanded more paper money, tax relief, relief for debtors and an end to imprisonment for debts
- Made more people demand change in the government
**articles of confederation wasnt working and people wanted change-> constitutional convention
constitutional convention
may 1787: 55 delegates: to fix/rewrite A of C
bill of rights
only after this was added, did most states agree to ratify the constitution, secured the rights of the people even more
Article 1
LEGISLATIVE BRANCH: house or reps, senate, proceedings, elections and meetings of congress, powers of congress, limitations of congress/on state, ELASTIC CLAUSE (A1 S8)
Article 2
EXECUATIVE BRANCH:pres and vp, powers of pres, duties, impeachement
Ariticle 3
JUDICIAL BRANCH: court system, jurisdiction (where they have power), treason
Article 4
RELATIONS AMONG STATES: they respect each other, privilages, new states nad territories, fed gov't guarentees protection
Article 5
Article 6
Article 7
Great Compromise
- Proposed by Roger Sherman, William Samuel Johnson, and Oliver Ellsworth
- Congress divided into 2 houses, Senate and the House of Representatives
- Senate had same number of representatives for each state
- House of Representatives based on population
Checks and Balances
makes sure no one part of govt has absolute power, secures rights of citizens; ex. bill to law: house->senate->president->veto power->2/3 congress
federalists vs. anti-federalists;ratification
fears of anti-federalists concerning ratification
- Feared the new Constitution would create an overbearing government and destroy their liberties
- No bill of rights
- Nothing to stop the president from becoming king
first part of declaration- why?
other parts:
-Beliefs on gov't
-wrongs done to colonies
-efforts to avoid seperation
-resolution of independence
elastic clause
A 1 S8- implied powers of congress
presidential veto
a check and balance on the pres
supreme court
cases heard by: original and appellate
provide def of treason and punishment
2/state, elected every 6 yrs, 1 vote each, impeachment JURY
House of Representatives
elected every 2 yrs, must be 25 yrs old, citizen of US for 7 yrs, sole power of impeachment
powers- elastic clause
limitations- writ of habeas corpus, no direct taxes, no nobility
Founding bros
political parties
GW warned against their formation but they formed anyway w/ hamilton at the head of the Federalists and jefferson at the head of the reoublicans--threatened to divide the young nation
whiskey rebellion
-government had passed a tax on whiskey to help raise revenue:in 1794, western farmers rebelled against this tax
-Washington and Hamilton saw it as a direct attack and challenge of the federal government's power
-called out a militia to put down the rebellion and not wanting to fight, the farmers relented
-proved effectivness and power of government
XYZ affair
In 1797, Adams sent a delegation, comprised of Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, to negotiate peace with France. They met with three French agents, dubbed X, Y, and Z. These Frenchmen demanded a large bribe for the French foreign minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, a huge loan to help the French fight their wars, and a formal apology from Adams. When the documents were released to the American public, a wave of anti-French sentiment swept the nation. These feelings eventually lead to the eruption of the Quasi-war.
Alien and Sedition Acts
This act consisted of four parts all aimed at securing the protection of national liberty. While the Federalists viewed these acts as necessary for the protection of the American people, the Republicans countered that they were unconstitutional and blatantly denied the people their guaranteed rights of liberty and freedom of speech. These acts expanded the rights of the federal government to unfathomable proportions: they were given the right to expel any foreign citizen that they deemed a threat to the nation while in our borders during peacetime. The requirements to become a citizen were also redefined, increasing the number of years of residency to 14. The most contradictory act was the Sedation act which forbade anybody from printing or speaking anything that would bring the president into contempt or dispute.
Louisiana purchase
After the uprising in Haiti, Napoleon realized that he would never be able to control all of Louisiana, and made the offer to sell it to America. Livingston and Monroe (who were sent there to buy a small chunk of land to keep the waterways open), unable to wait for word from the president, decided to boldly take the deal.
Marbury vs. Madison`
-first decision of the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional, *establishing judicial review
- Jefferson ordered Madison to withhold William Marbury’s appointed position by Adams as Justice of the Peace. When Marbury applied to the Supreme Court for a writ commanding the deliver of his commission, Chief Justice Marshall agreed, but then went on to deem this section of the Judiciary Act unconstitutional.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
-brought country out of debt--assumption of debt
-created national bank
Problems confronting new nation 1790-1808
-strain of political parties
-france and britain pulling them
Election 1800
-resulted in adding of 12th amedment (president and the vice president must be a cooperative pair and that the vice president must fill the requirements to become president)
-jefferson and aaron burr tied
westward expansion
-colonists wanted to move west of the mississippi into their newly gained territory
War of 1812
-confirmed American Independence
-btwn britain and us
-results: sparked nationalistic feelings, US=great power not to be toyed w/
Monroe Doctrine
1. that the western hemisphere was closed to Europe for colonization,
2. any attempt to extend their political system would be taken as an offense to the US,
3. the US would not meddle in European politics,
4. Europe must not disturb the political status of the western republics in return
Tarrifs of 1816 and 1828
to promote economy- buy and sell good made in US, made south angry -->nullification
American System
-henry Clay
-plans for nation's self-sufficiency
->develope transportation system and other internal improvements
->estblished protective tarrif (of 1816)
->resurrecting national bank
...loved by N hated by S
Abolition movement
-Missouri Compromise
- The abolition movement started before the Revolution, but was ignored because of the South’s need for slavery to pick the cotton. In 1816-1817 the Southerners that opposed slavery started sending the slaves back to Africa to a colony that is now Liberia. During their 20yrs in action they only managed to send 4000 blacks back, but most weren’t even slaves.
Internal improvement
railroads being built, canals, steamboat, telegram all helped improve communication and transportation throughout the country
gold rush
-people were flying to CA when gold was discovered
-great oppertunity of getting cheap land out west
Mexican-American War
-President Polk
-set up so as to force mexicans to strike first--even though most americans did not want more war, congress agreed to declare war almost unanimously
-US has huge and easy victory (partly due to poor leadership on mexican side)
Annexation of Texas
-a provision of Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
Frederick Douglas
-champion of african american and women's righs
Charles Finney
-leader of the Second Great Awakening in America that had a profound impact on the history of the United States
Dorthea Dix
-social reformer for mentaly ill peopl
William Lloyd Garrison
- member of the abolition movement
-affiliated with American Colonization Society
-countenanced the activity of women in the cause, even to the extent of allowing them to vote and speak in the anti-slavery societies, and appointing them as lecturing agents; moreover, he believed in the political equality of the sexes, to which a strong party waf opposed upon social and religious grounds
David Walker
-published The Appeal- prompted whites to pass laws forbidding blacks to learn how to read and banned distribution of antislavery literature
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
-lead role in women's rights movement
-Stanton and Gage (fellow woman supporter) authored the Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States
-secured bill granting married women rights by a NY legislature
Sojourner Truth
-fight for the abolition of slavery, women's rights, and her attempt to help former slaves
Nation Trades Union
-confederation of workers union in the country