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13 Cards in this Set

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Round arches, vaulting techniques relate back to roman times. However, there aer differences-fire proofing-through vaulting, instead of flat wooden ceilings.

Smaller and larger spaces are also vaulted.
the development of the groin vault also allows better lighting.

a. Basilica of the time still has a nave with two side aisles, with two transepts and an apse (circular bit at the top)
b. Construction of church in main elements is the same as the basilica
c. Change: development of churches as destinations for pilgrims
d. Pilgrims visiting shrines need to be accommodated!
e. Arrangement of church allows traffic, or movement, around the outside perimeters of the inside of the church
f. More elaborate ambulatories--major development of the time.
Groin vaults-intersection of two vaults.
France, c 1050.
a. Cluny III (France), Monastery founded by Abbot Hugh of Cluny, 1088
i. Reconstruction of church buildings, some of which no longer exist
ii. Altars allow perpetual prayer for the salvation of mankind
iii. It’s a prayer machine- a house used for the preparation of the last day of this world
iv. There is an element, a group in society is constantly praying- reciting books of psalms
v. Pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela (where bones of St. James were discovered) motivated by a want for spiritual cleansing, renewal, and physical well- being
1. Lots of churches and monasteries on the path to Santiago de Compostela
2. Pilgrimage is a quest for spiritual and bodily renewal!!!
study of restoration of the cluny III monastery. right-remains of south trancept. 1088.
i. Gold statue reassembles the body of the saint
1. Studded with precious stones
2. This sculpture would have been set on the altar, to be addressed by the pilgrims
It is significant because it resembles the nature of pilgrimage of the romanesque times.
i. Reliquary = container for sacred remains
Reliquary statue of St. Foy. late ninth century
silver gilt and wood. france.
i. Several bays of groin-vaulted sections
ii. Architects and sculptures took great care to emphasize rhythm of each bay with color of stone
iii. Nave is rhythmicized
iv. Introduction of light and use of windows in Gothic period
v. Crowned arches and series of arcades
Nave of the church of La Madeleine, Vézelay, France, ca. 1120-1135
Vatican Museums, Reliquary with Stones from the Holy Land, 6th century
i. Constantine’s mother Helena went to Jerusalem to find the site where Christ was crucified
ii. Reliquary = container for sacred remains
1. Simple box with lid and containing stones of places of significance in the history of Christ
reliquary box with stones. sixth century. vatican. wood with tempera and gold leaf.
a. Cleveland, Arm Reliquary from the Guelph Treasure, 13th century
i. Silver gilt arm is supposed to represent the physical remain of a magical arm of a figure with religious significance
silver, gilt, champleve enamel.
on an oak core. c 1195.
One of the most sumptuous works associated with the abbacy of Mathilde
ii. What makes the figure powerful is the way the figure GLOWS
iii. Comparison with the Conques (France), st. Foy statue
Golden Madonna, c 980. gold over wood core.germany.
France, late 12th century, oak with polychromy.
Christ as ruler of universe, artist not interested in phyuscial reality. Only recognizability. They are focusing on the reality of christ. Mary is the protector, the intermediary.
Morgan Madonna (virgin and child)
left-north portal of ascension and christ at emmaus. right-south portal of annunciation, visitation and birth of christ. c. 1118.
portal sculptures from narthex of St. Madaline, in Vezelay france.
A. The Romanesque Church Portal
a. Spandrel
b. Several layers of archivolts that form the entrance, symbol of the heavenly Jerusalem in this world
c. Mosaic (France), St. Pierre, South Porch, 1130
i. These are billboards that announce the truth to the traveling pilgrim
ii. Most sculptures have a didactic role- main theme is Christ as ruler of the universe, in all his glory and majesty
A. The Romanesque Church Portal
a. Spandrel
b. Several layers of archivolts that form the entrance, symbol of the heavenly Jerusalem in this world
c. Mosaic (France), St. Pierre, South Porch, 1130
i. These are billboards that announce the truth to the traveling pilgrim
ii. Most sculptures have a didactic role- main theme is Christ as ruler of the universe, in all his glory and majesty
Christ in Majesty, Tympanum.c. South port of the priory church of st. pierre. France, c. 1115.
Gives a preview of paradise as a didactic message to the pilgrim
1. Close up of statue shows that artists are only interested in physical reality to a certain extent- these are figures from another world, removed from this world
2. Figures are focusing not on this reality but on the reality of the Christ and majesty right above
3. Ecstasy of elongated long figures with elaborate drapery that gives the impression of a shining body visible through the garment, but this isn’t a naturalistic representation- it’s celestial
billboards that announce the truth to the traveling pilgrim
ii. Most sculptures have a didactic role- main theme is Christ as ruler of the universe, in all his glory and majesty

i. Left: St. Paul flanks the church, larger than life, and you have to look up to see him
ii. To enter, have to pass a gate flanked by lions- this is the threshold into a different reality
trumeau sculptures on the south porch of priory of St. peter, c 1115. Moissac, france.
Giselbertus, Last Judgement tympanum, Church of St. Lazare, Autun, France, c. 1125-35
a. Autun (France), Cathedral of St. Lazare, W-portal, Tympanum with Last Judgment, c 1125-35
i. Always thinking of the last judgment which is looming above us
ii. Some people will be saved on the day, and some won’t be saved
iii. Christ depicted as judge, divided between the saved and the damned
iv. Above the saved: “thus shall rise again everyone who does not lead an impious life, and endless light of day shall shine for him”
v. Above the damned: “let fear strike those whom earthly error binds, for their fate is shown by the horror of these figures”
vi. Inscription states that the tympanum was carved by an artist named Gislebertus, as one who has gained paradise--economy of salvation.