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82 Cards in this Set

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Geologists
People who study rocks and how they were formed
Minerals
Naturally occuring substances that are neither plants nor animals
Are rocks made of minerals
YES!!
What are 3 properties to determine minerals?
Luster, Steak plate, Scratch Test
What is luster?
The way light bounces off (shiny, dull or greasy)
What is Steak plate
rub rock & see if it makes a streak
what is scratch test
testing for hardness (fingernail, copper penny & iron nail)
What are diamonds
the hardest mineral, has a glassy look
galena
has metallic luster & can be scratched with a copper penny
pyrite
brassy, yellow color
greenish/black streak
talc
softest mineral, has a greasy look
quartz
colorless, white, pink or purple, glassy, hard
mica
colorles, silvery, brown, may look glassy, soft
feldspar
yellow, white, gray, red, brown, glassy, pearly, hard
calcite
colorless, white, glassy, medium hard
igneous rocks
"fire made" formed from hot, molten rock material that is cooled and hardened
rocks are classified into groups based on how ______
they're formed
what rock is "fire made" formed from hot molten material that has cooled and hardened?
igneous rock
hot molten material below the surface of earth is called ___
magma
magma cools slowly so it has large grains called
granite
Magma that reaches the surface is called
lava
When lava reaches air it cools quickly so there aren't a lot of grains which is called
basalt
When lava cools extremly quickly, it doesn't form any grains which is called
volcanic glass
how are sedimentary rocks formed
one way they are formed is by pressing or cementing little rocks together
What are sediments
deposited rock particles and other materials that settle
how does sediments turn into rock?
as air and water get squeezed out
What are grains of sand called
sandstone
What are larger pieces of sand called
conglomerate
What is fine mud called
shale
Fossils are often found in what type of rock
sedimentary rocks
What are metamorphic rocks?
a rock that has been changed by heat, pressure or both
another word for metamorphic rock
"changed form"
what are 2 types of metamorphic rock
has bands (pressure caused)
no bands (doesn't break in bands)
What does "has bands" mean for metamorphic rock?
Pressure caused...
they can break apart on bands. (...gneiss)
What are some examples of metamorphic rocks (has bands)
granite, slate, (heated under pressure)
there's 2
What does "no bands) for metamorphic rock mean?
doesn't break in bands
what is an example of metamorphic rock (no bands)
marble (limestone that was heated under pressure)
What type of rock forms when magma cools and hardens
igneous
what type of rock forms from layers of sediments
sedimentary
what type of rock forms under heat and pressure within the earth
metamorphic
give 3 examples of igneous rock
granite, pumice, obsidian, basalt
give 3 examples of sedimentary rock
shale, sandstone, limestone
give 3 examples of metamorphic rock
slate, marble, gneiss, quartzite
what are 3 layers of our Earth
crust, mantle, core
What is the crust
Earth's outer layer made mostly of rock
What is the mantle?
Earth's middle layer made of liquid rock. Magma from this layer seeps through cracks in the crust to form volcanoes
What is the core?
Earth's super hot center
What is weathering
the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller rocks
give an example of weathering
plant roots pushing into rock; rock freezing and thawing; wind blowing sand against the rocks
what is erosion
the process of picking up and carrying away sediment from one place and depositing it in another.
What is an example of erosion
a river carries sediments
what is the rock cycle
the never ending process of rocks forming, weathering, and changing into other rocks
what is a fossil
the preserved trace or remains of a once living thing
most fossils are found in what type of rock
sedimentary rock
where are the oldest fossils found
in the deepest layers of the rocks
fossils give clues to the ____
past (history of earth)
what do fossils tell us
tell us when and where different plants and animals lived
What is formed from sediments of sand
sandstone
what is formed from materials (plants, animals, shells in water)
limestone
what is formed when layers of mud and clay are pressed together
shale
what is found in sedimentary rock. Traces of plants and animals
fossils
what is a Cast fossil
minerals fill up the mold and harden
what is an imprint (fossil)
an impression or "print" in mud
what is mold (fossil)
completely covered with mud. Leaves a hole to show fossil
What is amber (fossil)
hardened sap from a tree
What is petrified (fossil)
minerals take the shape and turned to stone
What are 6 different types of fossils
cast, imprint, mold, amber, petrified, ice
what is found in sedimentary rock. Traces of plants and animals
fossils
What are some causes of erosion
wind, rivers, glaciers, waves, gravity
what is a Cast fossil
minerals fill up the mold and harden
what are some causes of weathering?
snow, water, ice, wind, plants
what is an imprint (fossil)
an impression or "print" in mud
what is mold (fossil)
completely covered with mud. Leaves a hole to show fossil
What is amber (fossil)
hardened sap from a tree
What is petrified (fossil)
minerals take the shape and turned to stone
What are 6 different types of fossils
cast, imprint, mold, amber, petrified, ice
What are some causes of erosion
wind, rivers, glaciers, waves, gravity
what are some causes of weathering?
snow, water, ice, wind, plants
what are examples of metamorphic rock
marble, slate
**change in pressure/heat
What are examples of igneous rock
Made from magma
granite
obsidian
What are examples of sedimentary rock
sand, dirt, rocks
sandstone, limestone
what are fossils good for
explaining the past