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51 Cards in this Set

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Color/Streak
The color of a mineral as seen by the human eye. Streak is the color of the powder of a minerals caused by rubbing the mineral across a streak plate. This shows the true color before the mineral is attacked by the atmosphere
Hardness
Property of a mineral that is relative to other objects and minerals.
Mohs Hardness Scale
A scale that ranks the minerals relatively from 1-10. ! is the softest mineral (Talc) and 10 is the hardest mineral (Diamond)
Magnetism
A property of attraction between the mineral and a magnet.
Cleavage
The ability of a mineral to break along straight lines.
fracture
Fracture is the ability of a mineral to break or shatter like glass with no pattern or design.
Hematite
A mineral that is high in iron. It is the most common form of iron ore
Calcite
Calcite is a mineral that is composed of Calcium Carbonate. It forms from the decomposition of
fish skeletons or shell at the bottom of the ocean. It is usually yellow or yellowish white in color
Talc
Talc is the soft mineral that is given he number 1 on Mohs Hardness scale. It has pearly luster and is greasy tot he touch. It has perfect cleavage and was ground up into talcum powder for many years.
Galena
Galena is a mineral with perfect cubic crystals. It is the main source of lead ore in the U.S. It has a hardness of 2.5 making it quite soft..
Magnetite
Magnetite is a mineral that is almost pure iron. It is one of two minerals that is magnetic by nature. It is a very good source of iron ore. It has a metallic luster and is a 5.5 on Mohs hardness scale.
Ignis
The word igneous comes to us from the Latin word "ignis" which means "fire"
Magma
Magma is molten rock that is located under the surface of the Earth.
intrusive
This is an igneous rock that had cooled inside the Earth.
batholith
This is a very large igneous intrusive that is more than 100 square miles in volume. It is the largest of the igneous intrusions
cleavage
A large intrusive igneous body
larger than 100 square km
dikes
This is an igneous intrusion that runs vertically or near vertically and cuts across a preexisting body of rock.
laccoliths
This is a smaller version of a batholith that runs parallel to an already existing rock body
sills
This is an igneous body that is similar to a dike with the exception that it runs parallel to preexisting rock bodies instead of cutting through it.
extrusive
These are igneous bodies that cool on the surface of the Earth.
Lava
This molten rock that has erupted to and on the surface of the Earth.
Acidic Rocks
These are igneous rocks that are high in silica and are acidic in nature.
Basic Rocks
These are igneous rocks that are much lower in silica than are acidic rocks. Below 52% silica.
Basalt
This is the most widespread of all the extrusive igneous rocks. Basalts are dark in color and are very fine-grained. Basalt minerals are so fine that they are not able to be seen with the naked eye. They usually cool very fast on the surface of the Earth but can cool inside the Earth.
Pumice
This is a very light extrusive igneous rock. It is so light that it actually floats on water. It forms in the air as it is shot out during a volcanic eruption. As the lava flies through the air, the gases inside the lava escape and that leaves holes in the rock.
Rhyolite
Rhyolite is the same as granite in its composition. The difference is that rhyolite forms on the surface of the Earth and cools much more rapidly. This leaves it with very fine-grains.
Gabbro
This igneous rock is also similar to granite and rhyolite in its composition. It is very dark in color.
Obsidian
This igneous rock is also called volcanic glass. It cools so rapidly that it does not give the mineral crystals time to grow. It is very hard and fractures like glass. It was used by ancient native peoples around the world for spear and arrow heads. It can be clear to very dark green almost black in color.
What is the name of the most common rock on the surface of the Earth?
Granite
What is weathering?
The break down of rock by wind, water, or ice into smaller pieces.
What are the three types of rocks?
Sedimentary, Igneous, and Metamorphic.
Luster
A property of minerals that
indicates the "shininess" of a mineral
In your own words give a definition of the term, ROCK.
Rocks are made of two or more different
minerals that have been 1) cemented together, or 2) squeezed and heated together, or 3) melted and cooled together. Rocks make up the majority of the Earth's crust. One of the most common rock is granite.
What are the four minerals that are found in most granite
rocks?
Feldspar, mica, quartz, and hornblende
Draw a diagram and explain what happens in the rock
cycle
<img src="http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Ch4CM/Test4key1.gif">
In your own words describe what a mineral is.
A mineral is a solid material, made of one substance, that occurs naturally on Earth.Most of the common minerals are made of crystals.
What is the name of the mineral that is magnetic?
Magnetite
What does the term property of a mineral mean?
A property is a characteristic of a mineral. Properties help scientists to better understand how the mineral was formed and also to help identify a mineral.
Soil
Soil is composed of very small, weathered fragments of rock along with organic (decomposed or decomposing plant and animal material) material.
Rock Cycle
The rock cycle is the process in which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are changed over time. Igneous rocks are formed by volcanic activity. Metamorphic rocks are igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks that have been changed by heat, pressure, chemical means, or a combination of all or some of the above. Sedimentary rocks are formed from the weathering of all of the rock types and the cementing, compressing, or recrystallization of the sediments.
Granite
Granite is an igneous rock that has formed deep under the surface of the Earth. It is composed of four minerals. They are 1) quartz 2)feldspar 3) mica 4) hornblende.
Feldspar
Feldspars are the most abundant minerals found on the surface of the Earth. Feldspars can be glassy white, pink, and a variety of other colors. They contain silica, aluminum and potassium. Ex. Clay
Mica
Micas are minerals that can be split into very thin sheets. Mica can be clear to very dark green or black in color.
Hornblende
Hornblende is a mineral that is composed of magnesium, iron, silica, and aluminum. It is found in many igneous rocks.
Quartz
Quartz is a very common mineral that is found on the surface of the Earth.
Minerals
A mineral is a solid material, made of one substance, that occurs naturally on Earth
Crystals
A crystal is a solid that forms by repeated 3-dimensional patterns of atoms, ions, or molecules.
Elements
A substance that is made of atoms that have an identical number of protons and electrons and can not be reduced into a simpler form.
Properties
Characteristics of minerals that helps scientists to identify and label minerals. Ex Luster,Color/Streak, Hardness,
Properties
Characteristics of minerals that helps scientists to identify and label minerals. Ex Luster,Color/Streak, Hardness,
Luster
The way a mineral reflects light.