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43 Cards in this Set

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how does carbon tetrachloride kill you?
in the liver, it is metabolized to free radical metabolites, which fuck your liver.
which 2 phenomena are always associated with irreversible damage?
1. loss of cell membrane integrity
2. inability to reverse mitochondrial damage
where is a temperature resistant isoform of AP found?
biliary epithelium
what color is eosinophilic?
pink
what color is basophilic?
blue / purple
what is fragmented nucleus?
karyorrhexis
what is faint dissolved nucleus?
karyloysis
how can proteases decrease cell membrane integrity?
by cleaving cytoskeletal elements and making the cell membrane vulnerable to stretching and rupture
why does hypoxia cause inflammation?
because hypoxic parenchymal and endothelial cells release cytokines and upregulated cell adhesion molecules
why can complement be involved in reperfusion injury?
IgM deposit in ischemic tissues, and complement proteins can bind to the se immune complexes, and this can cause damage
how do parenchymal cells die in pancreatic duct obstruction?
apoptosis
what phospholipid flips from inner to outer leaf to signal for phagocytosis?
phosphotidylserine
what determines whether TNF will activate apoptosis or survival?
which adaptor protein binds to the TNF receptor
what is NF-kB
a prosurvival transcription factor
TNF stimulates the degredation of the inhibitor of NF-kB resulting in survival

TNF can also causes apoptosis via a TNF receptor if the right adaptor protein binds
how do CTLs kill cells?
CTLs secrete perforin and granzyme B and also express FasL.

perforin allows entry of granzyme B

granzyme B can activate caspases and trigger apoptosis
megamitochondria
in alcoholic liver disease and also nutrition deficiencies, mitochondria in liver cells become enormous and oddly shaped
muscular disease and mitochondria?
mitochondrial myopathy -hereditary myopathy with abnormal mitochondria
oncocytoma
benign tumor full of cells with huge mitochondria
Mallory bodies
intracellular aggregates of IFs seen in the hepatocytes of chronic alcoholics.

Mallory, you are such a fucking drunk
alpha 1 antripsin disease
alpha 1 antitripsin doesnt fold right and accumulates in the ER of liver cells that produce it.

elastases in the lungs run wild and fuck everything up
where is fatty change most common?
liver (and heart=2nd)
what change can DM cause in liver?
fatty change (abnormal lipid metabolism)
how are lipids stored in cells with fatty change?
small cytoplasmic droplets or big vacuoles
why does corticosteroid cause fatty change in liver
increases fatty acid entry into liver
why does anoxia cause fatty change in the liver?
decreased ability to utilize fatty acids
why does CCl4 cause fatty change in liver?
free radicals damage cell and lead to decreased apoprotein synthesis. (protein, not lipoprotein synth)
how does alcohol cause fatty change?
1. more alpha-glycerophosphate around, and more triglyceride synthesis
2. impaired lipoprotein secretion
Niemann-Pick Disease, type C
lysosomal storage disease - mutation of nzm in cholesterol catabolism. cholesterol accumulates in lysosomes
cholesterolosis
GALLBLADDER

focal accumulations of cholesterol laden macrophages accumulate in the lamina propria of GB
what do protein inclusions look like?
round eosinophilic (pink) droplets. think of how exudate is pinker than transudate
amyloidosis
proteins accumulate in EXTRACELLULAR space.

think amyloid bodies in AD in the EXTRACELLULAR spae
Russell Bodies
flamboyant production of IgG in plasma cells
cystic fibrosis
mutant CFTP doesnt fold right and is degraded
what change occurs in damaged arterioles due to chronic HTN?
extracellular hyaline change
pigment derived from cell membrane lipid peroxidation
lipofuscin
pigment composed of aggregated ferritin
hemosiderin
what can cause systemic hemosiderin accumulation?
1 increased iron intake (primary hemochromatosis)
2 impaired iron utilization (thalassemia)
3 hemolysis
4 chronic transfusion
2 types of calcification?
dystrophic (due to cell necrosis, atherosclerosis, or damaged heart valve)

metastatic (due to hypercalcemia)
how does dystrophic calcification begin?
extracellular
in dead or dying cells, small vesicles containing many negative charged phospholipids concentrate calcium. membrane bound phosphatases cleave phosphate. calcium + phosphate = crystals

intracellular
in dying mitochondria
4 causes of metastatic calcification
all 4 causes cause hypercalcemia:
1. increased PTH
2. hyperparathyroidism secondary to hyperphosphatemia in renal failure
3. vitamin D toxicity or systemic sarcoidosis
4. destruction of bone tissue
Paget's disease and calcification?
increased bone turnover can result in metastatic calcification
reduction in vitamin E could cause ___???
reduction in life span
werner syndrome
defective dna helicase involved in dna repair

rapid accumultaion of chromosomal damage and rapid aging