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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 4 factors that determine tree survival and distribution
Shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species

seed dispersal and germination

size/age at maturity

diseases and parasites

What percentage of energy of new paper does it take to make recycled paper?
Recycling conserves:
water adn landfill space
Name 2 problems with recycling.
Less than 20% of office wastepaper is recycled.

Chlorine pollution from cleaning recycled paper.
Public forests are managed according to the:
Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960.
Name the 3 forest controversies.
Rainforest destruction.

Logging Controversies

Loss of Forest dwelling species.
Name 2 animals that are losing their forest habitat.
Spotted Owl (US) and Golden Lion Tamarine (brazil)
What are the two types of forest?
Hardwood and softwood
Describe a softwood
-lower density wood fibers
- long straight trunks, few limbs
- evergreen
- easy to work with
- pine, fir
Describe a hardwood
- dense wood fibers
- many limbs, little striaght wood
- deciduous
- difficult to work with
-oak, hickory, ash, walnut
What is a forest stand?
A group of trees in an area that are similar in species composition, age, and structure.
Which cooresponds iwth primary succession, an old growth forest or a secondary forest?
old growth
Name the order of the communities.
Pioneer, intermediate, and climax.
Which plants would you find in an intemediate community? Grasses/herbs/shrubs/aspen or white spruce/ balsaam fir?
grasses/ herbs/ shrubs/ aspen
Describe an old growth forest.
Messy, dead tress, different vegetation, snags.
Would shade intolerant species be present in a pioneer community? Why?
yes, because there is a lot of sunlight.
Name 3 soil characteristics.
Nutrients, sand content, permeability (air) and porosity (water)
What is good about a surface fire?
Burns undergrowth and litter. kills fungi. removes competing plants.
What type of fire is extremely destructive?
Crown fire. Burns entire forest.
The area between aquatic and terrestrial.
When you want to maximize economic return ASAP, what type of management should you practice?
Of the annual timber harvest in the US, clearcutting accounts for ___.
Even aged management-
Harvest, replant same aged trees. Fast production of lower quality lumber.
What type of species does even-aged management produce?
shade intolerant
Which type of forest management is the least aesthetically pleasing?
Which type of forest management is the most cost effective?
Uneven-aged management has a concentration on ____________.
If you want to produce a long rotation of high-quality high value shade-tolerant trees, what type of management would you practice?
Uneven-aged management.
What type of cutting is practiced in uneven management?
selective cutting
Name 3 different uses of public forests.
- Timber harvesting
- outdoor recreation
- livestock grazing
What are peolple worldwide burning in response to the firewood shortage?
manure and crop-waste
Laucaeana and maize
Poplar and winter wheat, Britain
Rubber trees and tea, China
Cows and acacia trees

Cows and pecans

Sheep and Alnus tree, Rwanda

Cows and pine tree
What is agroforestry?
combining growing trees and crops in the same place
What are two advantages of agroforestry?
More efficient use of solar energy

Reduced insect pests and diseases- less of monoculture- more birds
what do conservationists think should be true in public forest management?
Selective cutting, small and lightweight equipment, leave snags for wildlife, clearcutting should be in less than 15 acres. timber should be grown on long rotations.
How much of tropical forests remain?
less than 50%
How many acres of tropical forest are destroyed annually?
78 million
Tropical forests hold how much of the earth's plants and animals?
Do conservationists think that timber sales should include costs of roads?
Name a medecine that comes from the rainforest.
Asprin and Capoten
Name the 4 different kinds of forage on rangeland.
Sedges, forbs, rushes, and grasses.
Forbs are broad leaved flowering plants. True or False?
What makes an animal a ruminant?
Multi-chambered stomach
Do ruminants feed on rangeland or forests?
What animal is causing the severe degredation of rangeland?
Grasses grow from the base of the plant. The lower part of the plant is know as the _________.
Metabolic reserve.
Grazing pressure is a function of :
Type of animal, number of animals, and grazing time.
Describe decreasers.
Highly palatable, decline in abundance with grazing pressures.
What happens to increasers under moderate grazing pressure?
slight increase or stable levels.
What is an examble of an invader?
prickly pear cactus, mewquite
where are invaders abundant?
overgrazed and undergrazed range
Is migration important for nibblers?
What kind of grazers remove entire plants?
How are the populations of defoliators controlled?
predation, parasitism, starvation.
Drought and fire maintain rangeland _____________.
What are some human rangeland disturbances?
hunting, development, agriculture, exotic species, and over/undergrazing
What is carrying capacity?
the maximum amount of grazing that can be supported without degrading the rangeland
Grazing is usually quantified as an _________ ______ _________.
Animal Unit Month
Name some of the factors that decide rangeland condition.
% if native plants, % of forage production potential, % of desireable plants, Humus, Erosion, Acre/AUM
Which Acre/AUM is higher? cows or sheep?
What are the 4 categories of rangeland condition?
excellent, good, fair, poor
What did the Federal Land Policy and Management Act say?
All federal land not in forests or parks managed by the bureau of land management.
What was the Taylor Grazing Act
1934. grazing services rangelnad assessment.