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56 Cards in this Set

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2 types of single subject designs
case study
small n design (single subject design)
2 types of experimental designs within a small n experiment
ABAB design
multiple baseline designs
2 types of multiple baseline designs
multiple baseline across individuals
multiple baseline across behavior
Another name for the ABAB design
Reversal design
case study
An intensive description and analysis of a single individual
nomothetic approach
Approach to research that seeks to establish broad generalizations or laws that apply to large groups (populations) of individuals; the average or typical performance of a group is emphasized.
idiographic approach
Intensive study of an individual, with an emphasis on both individual uniqueness and lawfulness.
single-subject experiment
a procedure that focuses on behavior change in one individual by systematically contrasting conditions within that individual while continuously monitoring behavior.
baseline stage
First stage of a single-subject experiment in which a record is made of the individual's behavior prior to any intervention
ABAB design (reversal design)
A single-subject experimental design in which an initial baseline stage (A) is followed by a treatment stage (B), a return to baseline (A), and then another treatment stage (B); the researcher observes whether behavior changes on introduction of the treatment, reverses when the treatment is withdrawn, and improves again when the treatment is reintroduced.
multiple-baseline design across individuals
* Baselines are established for different individuals
* Treatment is then administered to each individual at a different time point.
* If the treatment is effective, behavior should change immediately following treatment.
multiple baseline design across behaviors
* Different behaviors are observed in the same individual.
* Baselines are established for each behavior.
* Treatments are then administered for one behavior, and then for the other behavior.
Advantage of _________:

* several methods and procedure may be done to the same individual.
Case study
multiple-baseline design
single-subject experimental design in which the effect of a treatment is demonstrated by showing that behaviors in more than one baseline change as a consequence of the introduction of a treatment; multiple baselines are established for different individuals, for different behaviors in the same individual, or for the same individual in different situations
Advantage of _________:

* Provides a rich source of info. about an individual's behavior.
Case study
Advantage of _________:

* These insights may then be used to form larger hypothesis which can then be tested on a larger # of people.
Case study
Advantage of _________:

* if you don't have much research in an area, this is a good place to start.
Case study
Advantage of _________:

* Using an individual allows you to "try out" techniques before they are applied to a larger group.
Case study
Advantage of _________:

*Allows you to study rare phenomena
Case study
Advantage of _________:

* Can provide challenges to theoretical assumptions.
Case study
Advantage of _________:

*complements the nomothetic (study of groups) approach by using an idiographic (study of individuals to identify what is unique) approach.
Case study
disadvantage of _________:

* lack high level of control
Case study
disadvantage of _________:

* can rarely make cause and effect conclusions (& why?)
Case study

Due to lack of control of extraneous variables. & several treatments may be applied simultaneously
disadvantage of _________:

*potential sources of bias (& why?)
Case study

Researcher is often a participant observer in the study and may have bias issues
3 other names for Single subject experiments
1) Small n
2) N=1
3) Applied Behavioral Analysis
* The methods developed within the experimental analysis of behavior are applied to socially relevant problems
What do we do in a small n experiment?
Researchers manipulate an independent variable in single-subject experiments; therefore these designs allow more rigorous control than case studies.
In which single subject design is there more control, small n design? or case study?
Small n design
Which single subject design uses observation, small n design? or case study?
Case study
Which single subject design uses manipulation, small n design? or case study?
small n design
What does the small n experiment typically focus on?
Behavior of one person (treatment conditions are contrasted within a single individual)
What is the first stage of a small n experiment ?
The first stage of a small n experiment is to establish a baseline record of behavior.
Stages of single n experiment:
1) baseline: behavior prior to treatment
2) once behavior has stabilized, administer treatment.
What are we comparing in a single n experiment?
baseline obs: recording individual's behavior pre-treatment and predicted behavior w/o treatment.

Baseline behavior and post treatment behavior are compared using visual inspection of recorded observations.
ABAB design:
(A) Baseline, (B) treatment, (A) baseline, (B) treatment.

called reversal design since during the second baseline effects of the treatment are reversed and behavior goes back to normal.
This is an example of which type of design?
Goal: Increasing Joe's performance on math problems by instituting an intervention/treatment . . . Treatment: Every time Billy gets an additional math problem correct, he gets one extra minute of recess time.
small n design, ABAB
What may be a problem with causal effect inferences with an ABAB design?
The effects of the first treatment may not completely reverse.
What is an ethical concern with ABAB
If the first treatment improves the subject, withdrawing it to return subject to baseline, could be considered unethical (i.e. "withholding treatment")
How many baselines should be used? with multiple baseline designs.
most use 3 or 4
issues with multiple baseline designs:
What if behaviors change before I start my intervention?
How can you know your treatment was effective?
issues with multiple baseline designs:

What if the treatment generalizes to other situations and can affect others behavior?
This may not be the design to use in this case.
Limitations of all single subject designs:
1) excessive baseline variability
2) Try to remove other factors affecting the situation
3) Average across data points.
4) When baselines show positive or negative trends (this is generally ok if the treatment is supposed to change behavior in a direction opposite the baseline record.
5) most common criticism of these studies is that these studies have low external validity (best way to fix this problem may be by testing a small group of subjects rather than only a single subject.
How is the multiple baseline design different from the ABAB
Multiple baseline design also makes uses of baselines and treatment stages, but not by withdrawing treatment (as in ABAB) RESEARCHERS ESTABLISH MULTIPLE BASELINES & shows the effect of treatment by showing changes in more than one baseline change following the introduction of a treatment.
how are the 2 baselines different?
One measures the same behavior in different individuals, and the other measures more than one behavior in one individual.
Multiple baseline design:
Why do we implement our treatments at different times in different subjects/behaviors?
To ensure that the treatment is what is causing the changes in behavior at any given time, and not some other factor.
What are some limitations of multiple baseline designs?
how many baselines to use (3 or 4 at most), behavior changing pre-treatment or treatment generalizing to other behaviors and situations (if altering one "thing" changes "another" not good)
Do small n/case studies have high external validity?
Why/Why not?
What can we do about it?
Not high because every individual is unique and there is no way of telling if a particular intervention will generalize to other individuals. But we can test a sign group of subjects test within and between individuals and it offers impressive evidence for both internal and external validity.
characteristics of true experiments
1) some type of treatment of intervention is implemented
2) have a high degree of control
3) always have an appropriate comparison
true experiments: What are some obstacles to doing them in a natural setting
1) difficulty obtaining permission from people in authority
2) difficult to randomly assign people to treatment conditions
3) waiting list control group
What are threats internal validity that experiments control for?
History
Maturation
internal validity: free of confounds
testing
instrumentation
regression
subject selection
subject attrition
Why? because of our ability to randomly assign subject to testing groups to balance out these effects.
What issues can't a true experiment control for?
Define them?
experiment can't control for contamination (when there is communication of information about the experiment between groups of experiment & novelty effects: when the novelty of a treatment, and not the treatment itself causes effects.
Quasi Experiments
What are they?
Use procedures that resemble true experiments.
Lack the control found in true experiments.
Lack the randomization of subjects to treatment groups.
Quasi Experiments
Why do we use them
We use them when true experiments are not feasible
some knowledge is better than none
you should always try to make your quasi-experimental design as close to a true experiment as you can.
Quasi Experiments:
What are 4 types of quasi experimental design?
1) non-equivalent control group design
2) interrupted Time series design
3) Time series w/non-equivalent control groups
4) program evaluation
Quasi Experiments:
non equivalent control group
what is the structure of this experiment?
a quasi experimental design which meets these 2 conditions:
1) there is a group "like the treatment group that can serve as a comparison
2) there is an opportunity to get both pre- and post-test results from both groups

O1 x O2 pre-test, treatment post-test
-------------
O1 O2 pretest, post-test
Quasi Experiments
Interrupted time series
-a series of observations are made before and after treatment.
-an abrupt change in behavior during the time series indicates a treatment effect
O1 O2 O3 O4 O5X O6 O7 O8 O9 O10
pre-test treatment post-tests
Quasi Experiments:
Time series w/non equivalent group
YOU MUST FIND A GROUP THAT IS COMPARABLE to the treatment group.
O1 O2 O3 O4 O5X O6 O7 O8 O9 O10
----------------------------------------------
O1 etc. no X
pretests treatment post-tests
no treatment