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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what type of circulatory system is found in annelids? How do they exchange gases with their environment?
closed system with five hearts. They exchange gases with the environment directly through the skin-they lack gills or lungs.
how do amphibian, reptile and mammal legs differ? what are the advantages of animal legs over the other two?
Amphibian legs jut out from the sides of the body, reptilian legs are straightened and tentlike, and mammalian legs are located directly beneath the body. The mammalian arrangement of legs facilitates running.
symbiosis of fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria
two processes that lend variation to bacterial reproduction
mutation and genetic recombination during conjugation
Key developments to allow life on land
LEGS - support weight and allow movement
LUNGS - more oxygen available, and need lungs as gills require water to be properly supported.
HEART - better able to deliver oxygen to moving legs and muscles.
REPRODUCTION- that won't let eggs dry out
WATER RETENTION - for self and eggs.
ecological significance of fungi?
principle decomposer, and only decomposer capable of breaking down lignin from wood to make it useable in environment. makes carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus compounds, available for other organisms. can also be harmful to living things and food sources.
what type of egg is first exhibited by reptiles, and what are its evolutionary advantages. How does it obtain nutrients, excrete wastes while contained within the egg, and how does the developing embryo respire?
amniotic egg, protects the embryo from drying out, nourishes it, and enables the development of the embryo independent of free water. Nutrients are in the yolk, and wastes are excreted into the allantois and stored until hatching. Respiration is through the shell and membranes, which are permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide.
what are parapodia, what class of annelids possess them and what is their function?
feathery outgrowths of the body wall next to the setae in polychaete annelids that function in increased surface area for respiration. Some parapodia may also assist in movement.
why insects can exploit all niches
very diverse, adapt quickly to many environments, features allow adaptation & success.
plants - transition to land
development of cuticle, stomata, vascular tissue, seeds = less dependent on water = expand range and flourish in diff. habitats
key features of amphibians
legs, moist skin, cutaneous respiration (also limits body size - surface to volume ratio)- pulmonary veins pump blood at high press. to tissues. partially divided heart keeps blood flows separate. NEED WATER SUPPLY FOR REPRODUCTION.
how are annelids developmentally similar to molluscs? what is the likely evolutionary connection between these phyla? what is the relationship between segmentation of annelids and arthropods as compared with the segmentation found in vertebrates?
Annelids are similar developmentally to molluscs because both possess free-swimming trochophore larvae. It is likely that molluscs and annelids are derived from a common unsegmented ancestor. The relationship between segmentation in annelids and arthropods and that in vertebrates is that annelids and arthropods may share a same segmented ancestor whereas vertebrate segmentation evolved independently.
why are green algae the ancestors of plants?
extensive biochemical and morphological similarities. Share chlorophylls A&B, carotenoids, cellulose-rich walls, starch as primary food storage product, and cell division via cell plate also similar.
plant root and fungi symbiosis. expedites phosphorus absorption by plant partner
ecological significance of bacteria
facilitate food chains. transform inorganic materials into complex organic compounts for food, and are also eaten by other organisms. break down carcasses of animals, plants, fungi, form soil, concentrate metals in ore deposits. Release elements to ecosystem for recycling. Some can convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia to enter food web.
What two characteristics distinguish mammals from all other classes of vertebrates? What are five other key characteristics of mammals and why are they important?
presence of hair or fur and milk-producing glands for nourishing young. Mammals are also endothermic, providing ability for continuous activity through day and night and alternating seasons. (1) placenta, an organ that provides nourishment, removes wastes from the internally-developing live embryo. (2) Mammalian teeth are retained through life (i.e., are not continuously replaced, the way a shark's are) and are typically highly modified to fit the feeding ecology of the animal. (3) Herbivorous mammals have modified digestive tracts, permitting them to make full use of cellulose as a diet. (4) Other mammals have modified keratinous structures such as horns and hooves, providing important adaptation for climbing, fighting, and protection. (5) Some mammals (bats) have evolved the ability to fly, allowing mammals to exploit a niche typically unavailable to other mammals.
How are birds different than other tetrapods, why are they more efficient flyers than are reptiles or mammals, from what reptilian structure are feathers derived?
Birds forelegs have evolved into wings and bodies covered with feathers. have light, hollow bones; and highly efficient lungs. Feathers derived from scales.
key features of fish
gills. simple single circuit circulatory system. scales. some have swim bladder and some have lateral line system (motion sensing.)
how do earthworms obtain their nutrients, what sensory structures do they posess, and how do they reproduce?
sucking soil into their mouth via contraction of the pharynx; then muscles in the gizzard grind up the organic material and the food moves through a long, straight digestive tract, with undigested material deposited as castings. Earthworm sensory structures sense light, touch, and moisture. Earthworms do not have parapodia. Earthworm reproduction is hermaphroditic. They orient head to tail when mating, held together by a mucous band produced by the clitellum. Each exchanges sperm with the other. After separation the clitellum secretes a cocoon, and as it passes the female openings, it receives the eggs. It then picks up the other worm's sperm from the sperm receptacles. Young worms eventually hatch from the cocoon.