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25 Cards in this Set

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How did Hitler establish his dictatorship?

Hitler’s position in January 1933
Hitler was Chancellor but he was one of only 3 Nazis in a coalition government
He was far from secure in power.
None
How did Hitler establish his dictatorship?

Reichstag Fire
27 Feb 1933: the Reichstag burnt down a week before election

Communist arrested

Reichstag fire decree allowed Nazis to round up and imprison political opponents – especially Communists

This decree was the foundation of police state
None
How did Hitler establish his dictatorship?

The 1933 election
Nazis won 288 seats

Still not a majority although they also had support of over 50 nationalists which did give them a majority
None
How did Hitler establish his dictatorship?

Enabling Act
March 1933: allowed Hitler to rule as dictator for four years

Hitler needed two-thirds majority in Reichstag to pass law – this was achieved through intimidation and the banning of communist members of the Reichstag (most of whom had been arrested)
None
How did Hitler establish his dictatorship?

The Night of the Long Knives
Hitler faced 1 remaining threat to his power – the SA

Hitler did not trust Rohm (SA leader) & the army did not like the SA (Hitler needed the loyalty of the army)

Hitler had Rohm & 400 others murdered in June 1934

A month later (August) President Hindenburg died

Army now swore loyalty oath to Hitler.
None
Why did Hitler become Chancellor in Jan 1933?

The impact of the Depression
Wall St Crash : Led to end of US loans & Germany went into deep depression with unemployment over 6m by 1932

Bank collapse in 1931 meant that middle-classes lost savings

For many Germans, democracy had failed them
None
Why did Hitler become Chancellor in Jan 1933?

The Nazi breakthrough in 1930
Germans turned to extreme parties in 1930

Nazis won 107 seats in 1930 compared with only 12 in 1928

Second largest party: fear of communism led businessmen & middle-classes to support Hitler
None
Why did Hitler become Chancellor in Jan 1933?

Broad appeal of the Nazi party
Nazis kept message simple: Hitler promised national rebirth, jobs & end to TofV

Propaganda methods of Goebbels were advanced for the time: Hitler flew around Germany ‘Fuhrer over Germany’

Mass rallies

Alliance with media tycoon Hugenberg meant Hitler appeared in newspapers & in cinemas
None
Why did Hitler become Chancellor in Jan 1933?

The elections of 1932
Hitler stood against Hindenburg in presidential election and did surprisingly well but lost

In July Reichstag election the Nazis won 230 seats and were now the largest party

But President Hindenburg refused to appoint Hitler
None
Why did Hitler become Chancellor in Jan 1933?

The Deal
Nazi support went down to 196 seats in the November election of 1932 & it looked as though Hitler had lost his chance

He was saved by the rivalry between Papen & Schleicher

Papen persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as chancellor instead of Schleicher – Papen claimed that he, as vice-chancellor, would be able to control Hitler…
None
Nazi Party, 1924-29

Fuhrerprinzip
Hitler refounded party in 1925 & established stronger personal control over it

The Fuhrerprinzip was the idea that every member of the Nazi party obeyed the leader without question

Hitler was worshipped by his followers
None
Nazi Party, 1924-29

Legality
Hitler decided that the Nazis should fight elections and take power by winning the support of the German people

He would destroy democracy once in power
None
Nazi Party, 1924-29

Gauleiters
Hitler reorganised party so that it could win support across German

This nationwide structure was dependent on district leaders: the Gauleiters.
None
Nazi Party, 1924-29

SA
The Sturmabteilung was now to be the propaganda weapon of the party – uniformed and disciplined with greater emphasis on recruiting the young

Set up soup kitchens for the unemployed during the depression

Massive expansion in numbers after 1929 (1.5 million)
None
Nazi Party, 1924-29

Reichstag election failure
Despite the expansion in party members, the Nazis failed to win support in elections to the Reichstag (parliament)in the 1920s

In 1928 the Nazis won only 12 seats

Whilst the German people were contented and had jobs and money, the Nazis had no chance
None
The Munich Putsch

Why did Hitler act?
The Ruhr crisis was an opportunity; decision to end passive resistance was unpopular at the time

SA was ‘straining at the leash’ (50,000 members)

Mussolini had taken power in similar fashion in Italy in 1922
None
The Munich Putsch

What happened?
Hitler took over meeting in Beerhall and held members of Bavarian government at gun-point - declared revolution

Army would not join Nazis

When Hitler marched through Munich the next day (9.11) the police opened fire and killed 16 Nazis
None
The Munich Putsch

Why did it fail?
Ludendorff let the Bavarian ministers go and they alerted police

Poorly organized – failed to take telephone exchange

Army & police stayed loyal
None
The Munich Putsch

Short-term consequences?
Hitler put on trial for treason;
Judge was sympathetic to Hitler & trial turned into propaganda triumph for Hitler

Now a national figure

Hitler was sentenced to five years but only served 9 months in Landsberg
None
The Munich Putsch

Long-term consequences?
Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (my struggle) - Nazi bible

Hitler decided that Nazis would adopt legal methods (fight elections)

Hitler also decided that party needed reorganization so that it could win support across Germany
None
The growth of the Nazi party, 1919-23

The DAP
The party Hitler joined in 1919 was one of many extreme right-wing groups in Munich

It was called the German Workers’ Party and attracted angry ex-soldiers.
None
The growth of the Nazi party, 1919-23

The NSDAP
Hitler refounded the party as the National Socialist German Workers’ Party in 1920 and took over as leader

Hitler dominated the party because of his speaking talents
None
The growth of the Nazi party, 1919-23

Core beliefs
Anti-semitism (Jews were Germany’s misfortune and mortal enemy)
German people were master-race of Aryans

Treaty of Versailles must be overturned

Greater Germany

Lebensraum (living-space) would be needed to sustain Greater Germany
None
The growth of the Nazi party, 1919-23

Sturmabteilung
The stormtroopers (SA) or ‘brownshirts’

The paramilitary wing of the party – made up of revolutionary ex-soldiers – attracted unemployed & Freikorps

Led by Ernst Rohm – had swelled to 50,000 recruits by the Munich Putsch
None
The growth of the Nazi party, 1919-23

The Munich Putsch
Failed attempt at taking power in November 1923
None