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54 Cards in this Set

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What is the Language Experience Approach
An approach to reading instruction based on activities and stories developed from personal experiences of the learner. The stories about personal experiences are written down by a teacher and read together until the learner associates the written form of the word with the spoken.
Phonemic Awareness
The conscious awareness that words are made up of individual speech sounds (phonemes).
- duck has three sounds (d/u/k/)
- duck and luck rhyme
- Can be taught w/out print
Knowledge of letter/sound correspondence such as knowing that in the word "phonics", the 'ph' makes the /f/ sound.
- Must be taught with print.
Rimes that have the same spelling.
- Words that share the same phonogram are word families. Rime or phonogram: at. Word Family: cat, bat, sat.
Two letters, one sound (/ch/, /th/, /sh/, /oa/, /ea/)
Two letters, one glided sound /oi/, /ow/
Vowel Digraphs
When two vowels come together in a word, the first vowel is usually long and the second one is silent.
E.g. boat, feet, play
The VCe (Final e) Generalization
When a word has a final e, the medial vowel is usually long and the final e is silent.
- E.g. cake, Pete, kite, tote, cute
The C Generalization
The letter “c” has two phonemes /k/ and /s/.
“c” -- /k/ before a, o, and u (e.g. cake, coke, cup)
“c” -- /s/ before e, i, and y (e.g. cereal, excited, cycle)
The G Generalization
The letter “g” has two phonemes /g/ and /j/.
“g” -- /g/ before a, o, and u (e.g. gate, goat, gun)
“g” -- /j/ before e, i, and y (e.g. gem, gin, gym)
The CVC Generalization
When a vowel comes between two consonants, it usually has the short vowel sound.
- E.g. cat, get, hit, hot, cup
Fluency is accuracy, rate, and expression.
Fluency Strategies
1. Repeated Readings
2. Assisted Reading - Childred read with classmate. The children read the same text aloud together, providing support for one another.
3. Choral reading - Improves fluency because the less able readers can hear fluent models and jump aboard.
4. Readers theatre- actors read scripts. Children get a chance to repeatedly practice reading aloud their parts. Allows students to increas their oral reading pace.
Different Levels of Comprehension
1. Literal - The answer can be found “right there” in the text (it is stated explicitly)
2. Inferential - The reader must understand beyond what is “right there” in the text (How? Why?)
3. Evaluative - The reader must distinguish fact from opinion, detect bias,
Independent Reading Level
Student read aloud 95% or more words correctly and answers 90% or more of the comprehension questions. Child can read and understand books w/out assistance from teh teacher.
Instructional Reading Level
(90, 60)Students read aloud 90% or more of the words correctly and answers at least 60% of the comprehenstion questions correctly.
- Student can read and understand material at this level with help from teacher.
Frustration Reading Level
The child correctly read aloud less than 90% of the words or did not answer 60% of the comprehension questions correctly.
- child cannot read and understand books at this level, even with help.
Letter Recognition Strategies
1. Displacy large letter on blackboard, students whose name starts with that letter line up underneath it.
2. 26 shoeboxes, each labeled with a different letter, students place toys starting with the letter in the correct box.
3. Sing the Alphabet- Sing song slowly as point to letter
4. ABC Books. Read aloud books organized by teh letters of the alphabet
5. Practive writing upper and lower case letters.
6. Tactile and Kinesthetic Methods: tactile-children make letters from clay or trace their fingers over letters cut from sand paper. Kinesthetic- Pretend to write letters in air that are 2 feet in height.
Focus on prefixes, suffixes, and root words. Also called structual analysis
How to teach sight words
1. Word Banks - A child's personal collection of words that he/she knows well enough to recognize in isolation
2. Word Walls
3. Explicity teaching of Sight words
Study of the origin and developmet of words.
Comprehension Strategies
1. Self Monitoring - Evalute and realize when doing understand
2. Re-reading
3. Summarizing - Identify main ideas and can retell story
4. Note-Taking and Outlining
5. Mapping - Storymaps, Story grammars, Story Frames
6. Learning Logs - Place where children record their thoughts about what they have read and generate questions, speculate, and summarize
Story Mapping
Comprehension Strategy where story's title is placed in a circle in the center of the diagram and characters, events, and locations are placed in satellite positions around it. Lines show relationships.
Story Grammars
Comprehension Strategy that is an outline. A common template for a story grammar woudl look like this:

Event 1:
Event 2:
Event 3:

Story Frames
Comprehension Strategy which is easy to complete. STudents just fill in the blanks. For example:

(Title of Story)

In this story, teh problem starts when ___________. After that___________. Next, _________. Then, ____________. The problem is finally sovled when ____________. The story ends when ___________.
Reciprical Teaching
A reading comprehension instruction strategy. Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue.
A way to assess Conent Area Literacy. Will determine whether a student can comprehend a specific text. Short for 'closure'.

The teacher deletes every fifth word, starting with the second sentence. The child read the passage without doing anything first and then read the passage and attempts to writ ein the missing words.

Independent Reading Level - Over 60% of the missing words provided.

Instructional: Between 40 and 60% of the missing words provided.

Frustration: Fewer than 40% of the missing words provided.
Advantages of Independent Reading
1. Familiarity with language patterns
2. Increases Fluency
3. Increases Vocab
4. Broadens knowledge of conent areas
5. Motivates further reading
How to Promote Independent and At-Home Reading
1. I + I: interesting books at student's independent reading level
2. SSR
3. Reader/writers workshop. An hour or more a day when children read silently, small groups work on projects, and teacher meets with individual students and groups of kids who have similar needs. One or 2 days a week
How can you promote books to students?
1. Read aloud
2. Booktalks where teacher tries to 'sell' book to student
3. Books connected to other content areas
4. Trips to library
7 ways of using
"Implicit" teaching of phonemic awareness
1. word play 2. chants
3. rhymes 4. songs
5. games 6. alliteration
7. tongue-twisters
Also called: "indirect"
to help children read in depth text info:
"S"urvey--(skim) look at bold type, titles, etc.
"Q"uestion—write 2-3 questions they want answered
"R"ead—looking for answers to questions
"R"ecite—say outloud what they learned
"R"eview—use study Q’s & A’s to review
What are 4 reading repair strategies?
1. re-reading
2. asking the teacher a
3. use a dictionary
4. look at an illustration
What are five categories of multi-sensory techniques that teach spelling?
1. visual: looking & repeated
writing (doesn't work for
2. visual use of color-use
crayons to highlight
spelling patterns
3. auditory: child says the
letter aloud as he writes
4. kinesthetic-write large
letters in the air
5. tactile-use sandpaper,
window screens,& shaving
What are 2 ways of assessing spelling?
1. in isolation
- spelling tests
2. in context
-in everyday writing
What are the stages in the writing process?
1. Pre-writing- Students choose or narrow their topic. Children will generate main ideas and organize supporting detail. This can be accomplished by quick writes, drawing picture, writing outline, or using semantic web (cluster).
2. Drafting - Student composes first draft
3. Revising/Editing- Someone should edit the first draft (writer herself, teacher, or classmate). The writer then makes revisions based on editor's suggestions.
4. Final Draft- Usually revision completed in stage three will be draft, sometimes more drafts are needed.
How can you support the reading development of ELs?
1. Differentiated Vocabulary Instruction: Use Visual aids and real objects.
2. Preview-Review- A preview of the lesson including objectives is given in the student's first language. After the lesson, a review of what was learned is provided in the first language.
3. Graphic Organizers/Outlines. Help ELs activate background knowledge and predict what they are about to read.
4. Teacher Model/Explicit Instruction- teachers should model any behaviour they want students to do themselves. Teachers should be very clear when they ask ELs to do something.
Alphabetic Principle
The use of a letter or group of letters to represent a speech sound in a language.
Scaffolding Reading Experience
Technique in which student is led through a set of learning activities before, during, and after reading that are intended to aid his/her comprehension and enjoyment.
What is graphophonics
The relationship between the symbols and sounds of a language
Words that sound alike but look different
Words that are spelled the same but have different meanings
Define Concepts about Print
An understanding of the ways in which
letters, words, and sentences are represented on the page.”
What is one way you can assess phonemic Awareness?
Yopp Singer Assessment-A test used to assess phoneme segmentation. In this assessment the teacher says 22 words. The child must provide each sound of the word in order. So, when the teacher says dog, the correct response is /d/, /o/, /g/
A students is phonemically aware if he or she is able to perform all of the following tasks:
Sound Matching, Sound Isolation, Sound Blending, Sound Substitution, Sound Deletion, Sound Segmentation
What is a strategy for Direct (Explicitly) teaching phonics?
(Whole to part lesson) Start with sentences and then work back to the sound-symbol relationship that is the focus of the lesson. For example.

1. Present a set of sentences on a pice of chart paper, each sentence having a words with the common element. Underline the target word. Example (sh digraph)
2. Studetns read each sentence aloud with teacher. Students then read aloud the underlined word (cash, fish, mash, dish)
3. Teacher says "There is something about the underlined words that is the same. What is it?"
4. Teacher writes the letters sh on the board and points, while children make sh sound
5. Children re-read the target words one more time.
How do word sorts help students learn phonics?
During word sorts, children are given cards that have one written word. Studetns must sort the words by their shaired sound. For example, children could be given cards not, job, slow, fox, joke, load, top. They would sort the words into two groups - those with short o's and those with long o's.
What are some Implicit or Indirect ways of teaching phonics?
Use a big book for a shared book experience. Children will be able to see the words that the teacher is reading aloud. For instnace, for the cat and the hat teacher could use the book to introduce the 'at' rhyme.
What strategy is readers theatre good for? Why?
Readers theatre is good for improving students fluency. Teacher should model good reading. Readers theatre will help because it requires repeated readings of the same text. Repeated readings will teach students to read at an appropriate pace, with appropriate pauses and stops, and proper inflection.
When should direct phonics lessons be used?
These lessons should be used with children who have not aquired the sound-symbol relationships appropriate for their grade level.
How do you determine a students independent reading level?
1. Administer a word recognition test using grade level word lists (start at 3rd grade level for 5th grader)
2. Stop when student misses more than 20% of words
3. Have the student read aloud from a graded series of passages (start 1 level below the highest level list the student passed)
4. For each passage tally the misques and ask 5-10 literal and inferential comprehension questions.
Name 4 Concepts of Print.
(children must be explicitly
TAUGHT if they don't know.)
1. print carries meaning
2. directionality & tracking
3. there is a difference
between a letter, a word
and a sentence (know
4. book orientation which is
cover? title? author's
name? where does the story
Name 5 IMPLICIT ways to teach concepts about print.
1. Read aloud to students
2. Shared Book Experience
-big book -predictable book
3. LEA (Language Experience
4. Use environmental print
5. Provide a print rich
lables/captions, morning
agenda calendar message,
mail boxes
What is a reading interest inventory?
How should it be administered?
What 2 things should be determined?
DEF.: a survey of student reading BEHAVIOR
How? Orally to younger kids in writing to older kids
To determine:
1. How much a child values
reading as a recreational
2. The child's reading pre-