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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phonological Awareness
Oral English is composed of smaller units
Phonemic Awareness
Ability to distinguish the seperate phonemes (sounds) in a spoken words. /d/ /u/ /c/ /k/
Phonics
letter to sound correspondences (ph-f)
Alphabetic Principle
Speech sounds are represented by letters
Phonemes
Smallest units of speech
Graphemes
Letters that represent phonemes
Onsets and Rimes
Onset- initial consonant sound or consonant blend

Rime- vowel sound and any consonants that follow

Onset Rime
c - at
spr - ing
Phonograms
Rimes that have the same spelling
Each syllable has what?
Onset and rime
What 5 steps are involved in teaching PHONOLOGICAL awareness?
1. Word awareness
2. Syllable awareness
3. Word blending
4. Syllable blending
5. Onset & rime blending
How do you teach Word Awareness
Have teacher hold up cards with one-syllable words, put them together individually to show them that words make up a sentence.
How do you teach Syllable Awareness
Have students clap their hands as they say each syllable in a word.
How do you teach Word Blending
Teacher shows a picture of a cow and boy. Teacher asks student what do you get when you put cow and boy together? The child should say cowboy.
How do you teach Syllable Blending
Teacher asks class "what word do we get if we put sis and ter together?"
How do you teach Onset and Rime Blending
The teacher would say the onset such /b/ and the rime, ank. The children have to put them together and say bank.
How do you teach phonemic awareness? (6)
1) Sound isolation
2) Sound identity
3) Sound blending
4) Sound substitution
5) Sound deletion
6) Sound segmentation
What is sound isolation?
When a child is given a word and asked to tell which sound occurs at the beginning, middle, or end of the word.
What is sound identity?
A set of words that all share the same beginning, middle, or ending sound, but have no other shared sounds. (lake, light)
What is sound blending?
Brief pauses in between each sound. /b/ /a/ /t/
What is sound substitution?
Substituting one sound for another: bat, cat
What is sound deletion?
Words beginning with blends that will generate a new word if one sound is deleted: Snail, Nail
What is sound segmentation?
To isolate and identify the sounds in a spoken word.
How do you help struggling readers and students with reading difficulties or disabilities?
Focus on key skills, Reteach skills that are lacking, use a variety of examples to explain a concept, provide additional practice
What is concepts about print?
How letters, words, and sentences are represented in a written language
What is letter recognition?
Identifying both the upper and lowercase letters.
What is alphabetic principle?
Sounds are represented by letters.
How do you teach concepts about print to students?
Read aloud to students
Shared book experience (big book)
Environmental print
how do you teach letter recognition, letter naming, and letter formation?
Associate names and things with letters
Singing the Alphabet
ABC books
Practice writing both uppercase and lowercase letters and writing words
Tactile and kinesthetic methods
What activity could you do to teach associating names and things with letters?
Have teacher write on board the letter and have students stand under the letter that begins with their name.
How can you teach letter recognition, letter naming, and letter formation using tactile and kinesthetic methods?
Students could ake 3-D letters out of modeling clay or trace their fingers over cut out sand paper. They could also use shaving cream.
How do you formally test for concepts about print?
sands or stones book
Consonant digraph
two-letter combos that make one sound: ph, sh
Consonant blends
2 of 3 letter combos: spr,
Vowel digraphs
oa, ea
Diphthongs
glided sounds: oi in oil or oy in boy
Precommunicative
Shows no understanding that letters represent sounds
Semiphonetic
Student attempts to use letters to represent sounds
Phonetic
Letters represent sounds