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40 Cards in this Set

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a single word or short phrase, interrupting syntax to emphasize proximal words
Expletive
deliberately expresses an idea as less important than it actually is
Understatement
a particular form of understatement, generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used
Litotes
recurrent syntactical similarity
Parallelism
reverse parallelism in which the second part is balanced by the first in reverse order
(glady forgotten, forgotten gladly)
Chiasmus
several similar rhetorical devices all involving a grammatically correct yoking or linkage together of two or more parts of speech by antoher part of speech
Zeugma
establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure
Antithesis
repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences
Anaphora
repetition of the same word or words comes at the END of successive phrases
Epistrophe (antistrophe)
consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them
Hypophora
question not answered by the writer due to an obvious answer; used for effect
Rhetorical Question
permits an argument to continue moving foward by anticipating an objection and answering it
Procatalepsis
consists of a brief statement of what has been said and what will follow
Metabasis
explicit reference to a particular meaning of a word in order to prevent ambiguity
Distinctio
repeating a word or expression while adding more detail to it to emphasize what may be passed over
Amplification
emphasizes an idea by expressing it in a string of generally synonymous phrases or statements
Scesis Onomaton
qualifies a statement by recalling it (or part of it) and expressing it in a better, milder, or stronger way
Metanoia
expresses doubt about an idea or conclusion
Aporia
comparison between two different things that resemble each other in at least one way; done for artistic likening
Simile
comparing two things which are alike in several aspects to explain some unfamiliar idea by showing how the idea is similar to some familiar one
Analogy
compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other (one IS the other)
Metaphor
another form of metaphor in which the thing chosen for the metaphorical image is closely associated with (but not an actual part of) the subject with which is it being compared
Metonymy
metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes
Personification
deliberately exaggerates conditions for emphasis or effect
Hyperbole
short, informal reference to a famous person or event
Allusion
substitutes for a particular attribute the name of a famous person recognized for that attribute
Eponym
paradox reduced to two words
Oxymoron
an adjective or adjective phrases qualifying a subject (noun) by naming a key or important characteristic of the subject
Epithet
consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence (final form of hyperbaton)
Parenthesis
the use of words whose pronunciation imitates the sound the word describes
Onomatopoeia
interrupts the discussion or discourse and addresses directly a person or personified thing, either present or absent to give vent to intense emotion
Apostrophe
consists of arranging words, clauses, or sentences in the order of increasing importance, weight, or emphasis
Climax (gradatio)
detailing parts, causes effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly
Enumeratio
citing an example; using an illustrative story, either true or fictitious
Exemplum
using more words than required to express an idea; being redundant
Pleonasm
similar vowel sounds repeated in successive or proximate words containing different consonants
Assonance
mentioning a balancing or opposing fact to prevent the argument from being one-sided or unqualified
Dirimens Copulatio
asserts or emphasizes something by pointedly seeming to pass over, ignore, or deny it
Apophasis
type of metaphor in which any portion, section, or main quality stands for the whole or the thing itself
Synecdoche
an extravagant, implied metaphor using words in an alien or unusual way
Catachresis