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40 Cards in this Set

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Ad hominem argument
From the Latin meaning “to or against the man”, this is an argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellect.
Allegory
The device of using characters and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning. (Ex- characters meant to personify hope or freedom). The allegorical meaning usually deals with moral truth or a generalization about human existence.
Allusion
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. They can be historical, religious, or mythical. (There are other possibilities also).
Ambiguity
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
Anadiplosis
Repetition of the last word of one line or clause to begin the next. [“Doubling back”].
Analogy
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An analogy can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity to something familiar.
Anaphora
Repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses.
Aphorism
A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle. (If authorship is unknown the statement is considered to be a folk proverb). It can be a memorable summation of the author’s point
Apostrophe
Breaking off discourse to address some absent person or thing, some abstract quality, or nonexistent character
Asyndeton
Omission of conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses (opposite of polysyndeton).
Antecedent
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.
Antithesis
Juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases. [“Opposition”].
Chiasmus
A verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed. (Similar to antimetabole, chiasmus also involves a reversal of structures in successive phrases or clauses.) Chiastic
Clause
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. An independent (main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. A dependent (subordinate) clause cannot stand alone as a sentence and must be accompanied by an independent clause.
Colloquial/ colloquialism
The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, colloquialisms give a work a conversational, familiar tone. They include local or regional dialects.
Conceit
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects. It displays intellectual cleverness due to the unusual comparison being made.
Concession
Figure wherein a speaker/ writer concedes or leaves a disputed point to the audience to decide.
Connotation
The non-literal associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. They may involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes.
Denotation
The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color.
Dehortatio
Dissuasive advice given with authority.
Diction
Refers to the writer’s word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. An author chooses words to create effects that enhance the meaning of his work. One component of an author’s style.
Didactic
From the Greek, didactic literally means “teaching”. Didactic works have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.
Ellipsis
Omission of one or more words, which must be supplied by the listener or reader. [“A falling short”].
Enthymeme
An informally stated syllogism with an implied premise. [“Piece of reasoning”].
Epiphora
Repetition of a word or phrase at the end of several clauses.
Epigram
A pithy saying, often using contrast. The epigram is also a verse form, usually brief and pointed.
Extended metaphor
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
Epithet
Using an appropriate adjective (often habitually) to qualify a subject.
Ethos
Persuasive appeal based on the projected character of the speaker or narrator.
ETHICAL proof ir proof that depends upon the good character or PROJECTED character of a rhetor.
[disposition, character]
Euphemism
Substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit. ["use of good words"]
Figure of speech
A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Include apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, etc.
Genre
The major category into which a literary work fits. (three main divisions are prose, poetry, and drama). There are many other subdivisions within these three.
Homily
Means "sermon" but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
Hyperbole
A fig. of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overtstatement. Often has a comic effect; however, a serious effect is also possible. It often produces irony at the same time.
Hypophora
Raising questions and answering them. (also known as anthypophora).
Imagery
The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. can represent more than one thing.
Inference/infer
To draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented. most direct most reasonable inference is safe.
Invective
An emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.
Jargon
The special language of a profession or group. the term usually has pejorative associations, with the implication that jargon is evasive, tedious, and unintelligible to outsiders.
Loose sentence
A sentence gramatically complete before the end (opposite of a PERIODIC SENTENCE). phrases and clauses may give the appearance of being tacked on haphazardly.