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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Allegory
a story with two or more levels of meaning-one literal and the others symbolic
Alliteration
the repetition of initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words
Allusion
A brief reference to literature, geographical locations, historical events, legends, traditions and elements of popular culture
Analogy
A comparison of two things, which are alike in several aspects, for clarification and explanation; sometimes analogies establish a pattern of reasoning by using a less abstract and more familiar argument
Anaphora
the repetition of words at the beginning of a series of clauses for emphasis
Anecdote
a short story, typically used to emphasize or illustrate an important point
Antecedent
the noun to which a pronoun refers
Antithesis
The placement of two opposing ideas within the same sentence in order to form a balanced contrast
Aphorism
a brief statement of trust or moral principle
Apostrophe
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or thing or a personified abstraction, such as love or liberty; the effect may add familiarity or emotional intesity
Appositive
a noun-in the form of a word or phrase-which describes a noun
Archaism
the use of an old or out-of-date word or phrase
Assonance
the repetition of an internal vowel sound
Asyndeton
the purposeful exclusion of conjunctions in a series of phrases or clauses
Audience
The person or group to whom a writer directs his/her message
authorial aside
a direct statement by the author to the audience in order to directly convey the author's true opinion, purpose, or meaning
balanced sentence
a sentence which has phrases of equal (or similar) length and weight separated by a semicolon
cacophony
a collection of words or phrases intended to create a sense of discord for the reader
cliche
a worn-out word or phrase
colloquial language
(also colloquialism) the use of slang or informalities in speech or writing
complex sentence
a sentence with one independent clause and one dependent clause
compound sentence
two independent clauses joined by a semicolon or a coordinating conjunction
connotation
the implied or suggested meaning of a word; association
denotation
the strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word
diction
word choice; diction must be "named." an author's choice of diction contributes to the tone and mood of the piece
effect
the impact created through a writer's language
ethos
the traits and character or a writer; the credibility of a writer
euphenism
a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for an unpleasant word or concept
genre
the type or category of a particular kind of literature
hyperbole
exaggeration for emphasis or humor
Ambiguity
the uncertainty or doubtfulness of the meaning of a statement or word
Imagery
the use of language to represent objects, actions, feelings, thoughts or any sensory experience
Irony
the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant. Three types: verbal, situational, dramatic
Juxtaposition
the placement of two distinct ideas or statements side by side for some effect
Logos
an appeal to logic
Loose Sentence
A sentence which connects two or more phrases or clauses by a series of conjunctions
metaphor
one thing is spoken of as though it were something else; through this identification of dissimilar things, a comparison is suggested or implied
objective
a neutral or unbiased point of view
oxymoron
a combination of contradictory words and meanings
onomatopoeia
words imitate the natural sounds they name
paradox
a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer examination contains some degree of truth or validity
parallelism
the placement of two or more words, phrases or clauses in a balanced series
parody
a work (literature, music, film) that closely imitates the style or content of another work with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule
periodic sentence
a type of sentence in which the most important information is found at the end
personification
presenting or describing concepts, animals or inanimate objects by giving them human qualities
point of view
the perspective from which a story is told (or an essay is written): first person voice (I, we) or third person voice (he, she, it ,they). Also, the author's position about the subject.
purpose
the reason a text is written
repetition
words, phrases, actions, and ideas that appear over and over again; usually, ______ in good literature highlights a pattern or makes a point.
rhetoric
the art of writing and speaking effectively and persuasively
satire
a work (literature, music, film) that uses irony, wit, parody, caricature, hyperbole, understatement and sarcasm to target human vices and follies or social institutions and convents for reform or ridicule
shift/rhetorical shift
a change in verb tense, location, speaker, narrative method, setting or tone
simile
a comparison between two things which are not alike, but which share at least one common element; similes explain an unfamiliar thing by comparing it to something familiar, _____ use like or as to make the comparison
subjective
influenced by one's own thoughts and feelings; contains bias
subordinate clause
a clause which cannot stand alone in a sentence; begins with a subordinating conjunction
syntax
sentence construction.
thesis
the sentence or group of sentences that directly express a writer's opinion, purpose, idea or meaning
tone
the author's attitude toward his or her subject and toward the audience; the way the author's personality is reflected in the work
understatement/litotes
the minimalization of fact or presentation of something as less significant than it is; the opposite of hyperbole
metonymy
a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another object closely associated with it
pathos
an appeal to emotion