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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which came first the Roman Republic or the Roman Empire?
Roman Republic then Roman Empire
What type of governement was the Roman Republic
limited democracy
What type of government was the Roman Empire
Monarchy - rule by the Caesars
When were Cenozoic events? before or after ice age?
Cenozoic events were before the ice age
What was the continent like during the Eocene?
Australia was near Antartica
The sea levels were different
it was the finishing touches of today's world
Colorado Plateau had what period of orogenies?
The Basin and Range Providence consisted of what types of faults or stresses?
Compressional stresses
Tensional Stresses
Normal Faulting associated with tensional stresses
During which period did the Compressional Stresses occur in the Basin and Range?
During which period did the Tensional stresses occur in the Basin and Range?
Miocene-present day
During which period did the normal faulting associated with the tensional stresses occur during the Basin and Range?
It began in the Miocene
The Sierra Nevada Mountains were the result of what tectonics?
West Coast Tectonics, volcanism
In the Northwest United States what was majorly occuring?
the ocean crust subducted which was warm and light
What was the density similar to in the Northwest United States during the Cenozoic?
Similar to continent to continent
What was building the Andes similar to?
the Andes is similar to the Cordillera orogenies
How is the Andes different from the one it is often compared to?
It is similar to the Cordillera orogenies. However the subducting crust is older and denser
Was there an orogeny in Africa?
the East African Rift Valley
What was going on in Antartica during the Cenozoic?
Circumpolar circulation by the Miocene
What were the Cordillera?
It was an event that occurred prior to the Ice Age. The structures of the Rocky Mountains formed by Cordillera orogenies mainly?
Who was effected by the Cenozoic Ice Age?
Greenland, Laurentide, Scandanian, Sibera, Anarctica
When did grasses appear?
When was the spread of grasslands?
Phytoliths did what?
This is how grasslands adapted and they were secretions of silica by grasses
Causes of Glaciation
There were variations in the Earth's orbit in addition to Milankovitch Cycles
What were the Milankovitch cycles?
They were forcing cycles that effected the shape of the Earth's orbit, the Angle of the Earth's axis changes, and the Earth's axis also wobbles
What is another name for Shape?
What is another name for the Earth's axis?
When the Earth's axis wobbles it is referred to as...
We have been in a state of ________ from the Early Creataceous until today.
Which Cenozoic intvertebrates were the most abundant adn most commonly used as index fossils?
What were Atolls?
Cenozoic invertebrates that were coral reefs around a former volcanic island
Were the Molluses of the Cenozoic similar or different to modern fauna?
Molluses of the Cenozoic are similar to the ones present today
What were some Cenozoic Invertebrates?
Zooplankton, Formainfera, Atolls, Molluses, Arthropoda
What types of Cenozoic vertebrates were prevalent?
"fish", Reptilia, Aves, and early Mammalia
What types of fish emerged during the Cenozoic?
bondy fish and cartiliginous fish
Modern forms of which fish appeared during the Cenozoic?
This type of fish became abundant in the Cenozoic
How have the Cenozoic Reptiles changed?
They have not changed much since the past
What types of Reptiles were prevelant in the Cenozoic?
Lizards, turtles, snakes
When did snakes become abundant?
The Miocene
What happened to snakes during the Cenozic?
snakes lost their legs during the Cenozoic
How did some Cenozoic Aves adapt to the changing conditions?
Some birds had loss of flight, some had reduced wings and enhanced hind limbs
The enhanced hind limbs of the Cenozoic Aves were for what purpose?
Speed,power, and swimming
What are the three primary characteristics of a Mammal?
1 bone in lower jaw
2 sets of teeth
3 bones in ear
Mammals that appear in the Creataceous with teeth
The last Tasmanian Wolf is an example of a...
What is Convergent Evolution?
Niche filled by animals with similar morpholigcal characters
What happened during the Great American Biotic Interchange?
Eutherians (placental mammals)crashed the Marsupila South American Party. The placental's crossed the new land bridge and out-competed the Marsupilias.
What are some examples of Eutheria and what did they do in the Cenozic?
The Eutheria (placental mammals) diversified into groups in the Cenozoic. Examples include: insectivores, edentates, rodents, rabbits, carnivores, ungulates
Ungulate examples -
horses, cow - terrestrial
whale -marine
What is Alabama's state fossil?
The Whale - which is a Cenozoic Marine ungulate
During the Great AMerican Biotic Exchange what animals moved North?
Edentates, Marsupials, Porcupines
Examples of Edentates?
sloths, glyptodons, armadillos
During the GABE which animals moved south?
Dogs, cats, bears, Mammoth, mastodon, rabbits, rodents, horses, deer, camel,
What was the problem with the GABE animals that moved south?
The South already had similar animals that occupied the same ecological niche.
What types of organisms died in teh Pleistocene in North America?
17 ka- 8 ka : Most large mammals in North America go extinct - There was essentially no change in marine/aquatic organisms, plants, birds, reptiles, or small mammals
Was there any death in Europe, Asia, or Africa?
No major extinctions
What are the possible causes of the death and dying that occurred during the Pleistocene?
Humans, environmental changes, Diseases
Two major types of evolution?
1. origin Myths/Cosmologies - i.e Genesis and Greek/Prometheus

2. Darwin and Wallace
What is Darwin and Wallace's belief on evolution?
Evolution theory holds that existing species of plants adn animals have emerged over millions of years from simple organisms
Who was Darwin influenced by and what is his major work?
Darwin was influenced by the theory of uniformitarianism. His famous work is "Origin of the Species"
What is Darwin's Principle of Natural Selection?
The Principle of Natural Selection is the gradual process by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment.
What must occur in a population for Natural Selection to work?
For Natural Selection to work in a given population there must be a variety within that population and competetion for strategic resources
What does the concept of Natural Selection argue?
The concept of Natural selection argues that organisms which have a better fit within their environmental niche will reproduce more frequently than the organisms that do not fit as well.
Random Genetic Drift?
The loss of alleles (alternate forms of genes)from a popluations gene pool through chance
What does Mutation do to a breeding population?
Mutatation introduces a genetic variation into a breeding population
How does gene flow occur?
Through interbreeding
The transmission of genetic material from one population to another
Gene flow decreases...
differentation and speciation
the formation of a new species
Mendal's Principle of Inheritance
The science of genetics that explians the origins of variety
Which other origin belief accounts for the biological diversity by referring to the divine act of Creation as decribed in Genesis
Which origin belief states that modern physics and cosmology have uncovered evidence for intelligence in the structure of this universe and this intelligence seems to act
Intelligent Desisn
Early Primates in order
Characteristics of Primates
opposable thumbs (grasping hand)
bionocular vision
What habit allowed forearms adn hindlimbs to diverge -
When they swung from branches...or brachiating -
What is one reason that we bipedalism evolution occured?
Tool use or habitat variability
Major advances in Hominod Evolution?
Brain size, hunting, fire, tools, clothes, built shelters