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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Three type of rocks:
1
2
3
1) sedimentary
2) igneous
3) metamorphic
Change of rock is called the __ ____.
rock cycle
The process of breaking down rock into sediment is called _________.
weathering
There are two types of weathering:
1
2
1)mechanical or (physical)
2)chemical
_________ weathering breaks rock down into smaller pieces.
mechanical
_______ weathering changes the rock into a new substance.
chemical
__________ takes place at or near the surface of the earth.
weathering
Weathering is affected by ____ and ______.
temperature and moisture
The multiple layers of soil are called _______.
horizons
The _______ horizon has leaf litter and humus.
O horizon
Most plants germinate and grow roots in this layer of the soil horizons.
topsoil or A horizon
The ______ horizon is mostly weathered minerals from the bedrock.
subsoil or B horizon
The _____ horizon is rich in minerals.
C horizon
The _____ greatly influences the texture of the soil above it and has unweathered rock.
bedrock or R horizon
___ ____when water seeps into rock and freezes; causing the rock to split.
frost wedging
___ _____ when water gets underneath rock and freezes; causing the rock to the surface of the earth.
frost heaving
A shift in the ground around rock shifts, allowing the rock to expand quickly is called _____ _____.
pressure release
When rock breaks off in sheets is called _____.
exfoliation
_____ is mechanical weathering caused when rocks rubs against each other.
Abrasion
Abrasion can be caused by ____ or _____.
wind or water
______ are rocks that have been formed when softer rock wears away faster than hard rock.
hoodoos
______ can cause rocks to break when their roots split the rocks.
Plants
How do animals cause weathering?
by moving rocks to the surface of the earth while burrowing
Name the two most common types of chemical weathering: 1 2
1) oxidation
2) reaction of acids
____________ is when oxygen combines with air to cause rust.
oxidation
______ ___ _____ is caused when rain mixes with chemicals in the air.
reaction of acids
___ _____ is formed when rain mixes with the carbon dioxide in the air.
carbonic acid
Rain combined with carbonic acid and sulfuric acid creates a strong acid solution called __ ___.
acid rain
___ and _____ are organisms that secrete a chemical on the rocks they are attached to.
lichens and moss
Caves are formed when rain dissolves the ______ in limestone.
calcite
______ are beautiful formations in caves.
speleothems
______ hang from the ceiling of caves.
stalactites
_____ grow from the ground up.
stalagmites
______ are people who enjoy exploring caves.
spelunkers
____ is loose material at the surface of the earth.
soil
_____ decayed organic material
humus
________ study the soil
pedologist
_____ is the largest kind of soil particle and allows water to drain quickly
sand
____ is the smallest kind of soil particle and holds water and air tightly.
clay
_____ is between sand and clay and allows water and air to mix with the soil, feels powdery.
silt
_____ of the soil is how much of each kind of particle is in the soil.
texture
When all three kinds of soil are mixed equally in the soil, it is called ____.
loam
_____ is especially good soil for farming.
loam
The ___ and ___ of the soil depends on climate, the rocks and plants in the soil.
composition and fertility
____ affects the rate and kind of weathering that occurs in an area.
climate