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32 Cards in this Set

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1. A self-report inventory that assesses general psychiatric symptoms on a Likert-type scale is the: © Academic Review
MCMI-III© Academic Review
Rorschach© Academic Review
MMPI-II© Academic Review
SCL-90 © Academic
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
The Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) is a self-report inventory assessing general psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and hostility. Clients respond to the stimulus term, such as "feel nervous inside" on a 5-point Likert type scale from "not at all" which gives a score of 0, to "extremely" which gives a score of 4.© Academic
1. A self-report inventory that assesses general psychiatric symptoms on a Likert-type scale is the: © Academic Review
MCMI-III© Academic Review
Rorschach© Academic Review
MMPI-II© Academic Review
SCL-90 © Academic
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
The Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) is a self-report inventory assessing general psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and hostility. Clients respond to the stimulus term, such as "feel nervous inside" on a 5-point Likert type scale from "not at all" which gives a score of 0, to "extremely" which gives a score of 4.© Academic
1. A self-report inventory that assesses general psychiatric symptoms on a Likert-type scale is the: © Academic Review
MCMI-III© Academic Review
Rorschach© Academic Review
MMPI-II© Academic Review
SCL-90 © Academic
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
The Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) is a self-report inventory assessing general psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and hostility. Clients respond to the stimulus term, such as "feel nervous inside" on a 5-point Likert type scale from "not at all" which gives a score of 0, to "extremely" which gives a score of 4
Test Construction
2. All of the following statements regarding item response theory are true, except © Academic Review
it cannot be applied in the attempt to develop culture-fair tests.© Academic Review
it's a useful theory in the development of computer programs designed to create tests tailored to the individual's level of ability.© Academic Review
one of its assumptions is that test items measure a "latent trait."© Academic Review
it usually has little practical significance unless one is working with very large samples.© Academic
The Correct Answer is "A"© Academic Review
Item response theory is a highly technical mathematical approach to item analysis. Use of item analysis is based on a number of complex mathematical assumptions. One of these assumptions, known as invariance of item parameters, holds that the characteristics of items should be the same for all theoretically equivalent groups of subjects chosen from the same population. Thus, any culture-free test should demonstrate such invariance; i.e., a set of items shouldn't have a different set of characteristics for minority and non-minority subgroups. For this reason, item response theory has been applied to the development of culture-free tests, and choice A is not a true statement.
The other choices are all true statements about item response theory, and therefore incorrect answers to this question. Consistent with choice B, item response theory is the theoretical basis of computer adaptive assessment, in which tests tailored to the examinee's ability level are computer generated. As stated by choice C, an assumption of item response theory is that items measure a latent trait, such as intelligence or general ability. And, finally, research supports the notion that the assumptions of item response theory only hold true for very large samples (choice D).
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
3. Which of the following is true of transformational leaders? © Academic Review
the goals of the organization are redefined to reflect the self-interest of followers© Academic Review
believe that subordinates are persuaded when the organization’s goals are compatible with their self-interests© Academic Review
motivate by encouraging subordinates to transcend self-interest for the greater good of the organization© Academic Review
assent to the self-interest of their followers
The Correct Answer is "C"© Academic Review
Transformational leaders are change-oriented. They encourage and inspire subordinate acceptance and support for organizational change that is in the best interests of the organization. In contrast, transactional leaders motivate through appealing to the followers’ self-interests and focus more on stability than change. © Academic
Research Design and Statistics
4. If you are interested in determining whether the relationship between arousal and performance assumes a linear or a non-linear shape, the best statistical analysis to use would be © Academic Review
multiple regression analysis.© Academic Review
trend analysis.© Academic Review
logistic regression.© Academic Review
principal components analysis
The Correct Answer is "B"© Academic Review
Trend analysis is a statistical technique used to determine the trend or shape that best describes the relationship between two variables. The technique basically involves collecting data on two variables and running statistical analyses to determine what trend or trends (e.g., linear, U-shaped) are significant. For example, in studying the relationship between arousal and performance, one could study 100 students and collect data on how aroused they are and how well they perform. Then, one could run a separate analysis for different types of trends and see which receives the strongest support.©
Clinical Psychology
5. Differing locus of control and locus of responsibility combinations yield the four worldviews described by Sue and Sue (2003). Mainstream American culture would best be characterized by an: © Academic Review
internal locus of control and external locus of responsibility© Academic Review
internal locus of control and internal locus of responsibility© Academic Review
external locus of control and internal locus of responsibility© Academic Review
external locus of control and external locus of responsibility© Academic Review
The Correct Answer is "B"© Academic Review
B. Worldview refers to the manner in which people perceive, evaluate and react to encountered situations. Sue and Sue describe mainstream American culture “as the epitome of the individual-centered approach that emphasizes uniqueness, independence and self-reliance” (p.277). This is characterized by an internal locus of control and locus of responsibility in Sue, D.W. & Sue, D. (2003). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice. 4th edition. New York: John Wiley
Clinical Psychology
6. The prevalence of mental disorders in people over 65 is: © Academic Review
higher than any other age group© Academic Review
lower than any other age group© Academic Review
higher, and includes cognitive impairment© Academic Review
The same as the under 65 population © Academic
The Correct Answer is "B"© Academic Review
Contrary to what may be expected, the prevalence of mental disorders in people 65 and older is lower than any other age group; only cognitive impairment shows a definite age-associated increase in incidence. (Dorothy M. Tucker, Ph.D, "Treating Our Elders: Exploring the Relationship Between Psychology and Medicine" California Psychologist, March 2000, pg. 4 Volume XXXIII Number Three.)©
Community Psychology
7. Which of the following statements best reflects the research findings on suicide risk among adolescents? © Academic Review
Males from dual-parent families have a higher suicide rate than males from single-parent families© Academic Review
Females from dual-parent families have a higher suicide rate than females from single-parent families© Academic Review
Males and females from single-parent families have a higher suicide rate than those from dual-parent families© Academic Review
There is no significant relationship between adolescent suicide rates and family configuration
The Correct Answer is "C"© Academic Review
Several studies have found that the risk for suicide and suicide attempts is higher among both male and female adolescents in single-parent homes as compared to dual-parent homes.©
Learning Theory and Behavior Therapy
8. Bandura completed the classic study on aggression in children and learned that: © Academic Review
children tend to imitate the aggressive behavior of adults© Academic Review
children are less likely to imitate adults they admire© Academic Review
children only imitate aggression seen on television© Academic Review
children only imitate live models ©
The Correct Answer is "A"© Academic Review
Bandura (1963) showed the effect on children of witnessing either live or filmed models. He showed that not only do children imitate the aggressive behaviors of adults, but that the more important, liked, and familiar the adults are, the more the children will imitate them.©
Developmental Psychology
9. Recently the relationship between Frank and one of his adult sons has become increasingly tense, conflicted and distant. Frank considers himself a loving and supportive father. He dismisses the problem as a temporary "phase" to avoid the situation. Frank’s attempt to explain away the problem, according to Whitbourne's self-concept model, is an attempt to maintain his own self-concept through: © Academic Review
identity assimilation © Academic Review
identity accommodation© Academic Review
identity styles© Academic Review
rationalization©
The Correct Answer is "A"© Academic Review
A. Identity process theory proposes that adjustment to aging can be conceptualized as involving the three processes of identity assimilation (maintaining self-consistency), identity accommodation (making changes in the self), and identity balance (maintaining a sense of self but changing when necessary). Despite the changes in the relationship with his son, Frank continues to think of himself as having a loving relationship in order to maintain his consistent sense of self. Research indicates only identity balance is positively related to internal state awareness, suggesting that the ability to incorporate age-related changes within an identity and at the same time maintain a consistent and positive view of the self is most conducive to successful aging. (See: Sneed, J.R. & Whitbourne, S.K. (2003). Identity Processing and Self-Consciousness in Middle and Later Adulthood. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, 313-319.)
Social Psychology
10. Experimenters find conformity is lowest when the: © Academic Review
group size is reduced from 15 to 6.© Academic Review
subject has a "partner" in the group who shares his or her opinion.© Academic Review
subject is "deserted" by a partner.© Academic Review
stimuli to be judged are highly ambiguous.©
The Correct Answer is "B"© Academic Review
Experimenters have found that just having a "partner" in a group liberates an individual to latch on to the partner and defy the wrong majority. Reducing the size isn't correct, since, if anything, reducing the size is likely to increase group cohesiveness and thereby increase conformity. The remaining choices also are incorrect because they would increase the pressure to conform.©
Social Psychology
11. Solomon, Pyszczynski, and Greenberg’s terror management theory proposes anxiety or “terror” results from the conscious awareness that human beings have of the inevitability of their death and is best dealt with by: © Academic Review
religious faith© Academic Review
consensual validation© Academic Review
mortality salience© Academic Review
self-esteem and a cultural worldview © Academic Review
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
D. According to terror management theory (TMT), individuals utilize two things to manage the terror associated with the fear of death: a cultural worldview and self-esteem. Consensual validation (b.), or others’ agreement with one’s own worldviews and self-concept, is critical for the effectiveness of cultural worldviews and self-esteem. An outside group, person or differing ideas that clash may threaten the validation system (religion, political ideology) that provides a sense of security. Studies have found increased mortality salience (c.), encountering or recently thinking about death, results in people strongly connecting to their worldview elements like religious beliefs or national pride and increased emergence of prejudices against an outside group in addition to creating a longing for structure, order, acceptance of quick, easy answers to problems and foregoing careful consideration of all options. (See: Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., & Greenberg, J. (2003). In the Wake of 9/11: The Psychology of Terror. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. and Solomon, S., Greenberg, J. & Pyszczynski, T. (1991). "A Terror Management Theory of Social Behavior: The Psychological Functions of Self-Esteem and Cultural Worldviews." Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 24, Zanna, M.P. (Ed).)©
Neuropsychology
12. The person who is unable to recognize certain objects when she grasps them and is unaware of that deficit is suffering from © Academic Review
agnosia.© Academic Review
ataxia.© Academic Review
aphasia.© Academic Review
akinesia.©
The Correct Answer is "A"© Academic Review
Agnosia is the inability to identify something. It could be not recognizing a familiar face, a tone or sound, or not recognizing a body part when touched. If the incomprehension comes from language deficits, the usual term is aphasia. So for non-language comprehension deficits, the common term is agnosia. For instance, individuals with damage to the parietal lobe are sometimes unable to recognize objects touched with the contralateral hand. This condition is known as tactile agnosia. Ataxia refers most often to lack of muscle coordination. Akinesia refers to lack of voluntary motion, such as what occurs in some forms of catatonia
Learning Theory and Behavior Therapy
13. In treating a client suffering from an Anxiety Disorder, a behavior therapist instructs the client to deliberately engage in the anxiety-arousing behavior as often as possible. The therapist's goal in this situation is most likely to © Academic Review
neutralize the anticipatory anxiety that is the real source of the client's problem.© Academic Review
eliminate the client's usual avoidance behavior by evoking his resistance.© Academic Review
extinguish the anxiety-arousing behavior by removing the reinforcement that is maintaining it.© Academic Review
diminish the client's anxiety through interoceptive conditioning.©
The Correct Answer is "A"© Academic Review
The behavioral technique described in this question is referred to as "paradoxical intention" and is similar in form to the paradoxical techniques used by family therapists, but differs in terms of its theoretical underpinnings. As used by behavior therapists, paradoxical intention is based on the assumption that a person avoids a certain behavior because of the anticipatory anxiety the behavior arouses. When a person deliberately engages in the behavior, a condition of incompatibility is set up and this condition serves to eliminate the anticipatory anxiety. The idea is that engaging in the behavior (or a wish to engage in the behavior) is incompatible with fear of that behavior and, consequently, the fear is neutralized.
Neuropsychology
14. Emotional responses such as anger and fear are mediated by which of the following brain structures? © Academic Review
amygdala© Academic Review
pons© Academic Review
thalamus© Academic Review
hypothalamus© Academic
The Correct Answer is "A"© Academic Review
The amygdala is a limbic system structure that apparently functions to integrate and direct emotional behavior. It attaches emotional significance to sensory stimuli and mediates defensive and aggressive behavior (i.e., behavior based on fear and anger). Damage to the amygdala can produce Kluver-Bucy syndrome, which involves, among other things, reduced fear and aggression.© Academic Review
Learning Theory and Behavior Therapy
15. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, hopelessness is a: © Academic Review
proximal necessary cause of depression© Academic Review
proximal sufficient cause of depression© Academic Review
distal necessary cause of depression© Academic Review
distal sufficient cause of depression©
The Correct Answer is "B"© Academic Review
The hopelessness theory of depression is a revised version of the 1978 reformulated theory of helplessness and depression. The authors of the hopelessness theory propose that hopelessness is a cause, rather than a symptom, of depression. Specifically, they suggest that hopelessness is a "proximal sufficient cause" of depression. "Proximal," in this case, means that in a chain of causal factors, hopelessness occurs at the end of the chain – closest to the resulting symptoms of depression. "Sufficient," in this case, means that the presence of hopelessness is enough to cause depression. However, contrary to Choice A, hopelessness is not a necessary condition for depression. That is, factors other than hopelessness can also cause depression [L. Y. Abramson, G. I. Metalsky, & L. B. Alloy, Psychological Review, 1989, 96(2), 358-372].
Neuropsychology
16. Following a stroke, a woman complains of numbness in her left hand and she does not respond to images presented to her left visual field. She most likely suffered damage in: © Academic Review
Broca's area© Academic Review
Wernicke's area© Academic Review
the right precentral gyrus© Academic Review
the right postcentral gyrus©
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
The postcentral gyrus includes the somatosensory cortex, and is located in the parietal lobe. Damage to the right postcentral gyrus could result in numbness in the left hand and contralateral neglect, which includes neglect of the left visual field. Broca's ("A") and Wernicke's ("B") areas are both located in the left hemisphere of the brain and only affect language. The precentral gyrus ("C") is responsible for motor functioning.©
Ethics and Professional Practice
17. A 14-year old is brought to your office. He does not want to be there. His mother notes that they are referred by the school. The only presenting complaint is that his grades are much poorer than last year. Your evaluation indicates no significant other problematic areas in his life. Your best course of action is to: © Academic Review
schedule ongoing treatment with yourself.© Academic Review
continue your assessment to ascertain the presence of hidden pathology.© Academic Review
explore the possibility of an educational intervention.© Academic Review
not do anything.©
The Correct Answer is "C"© Academic Review
This is a practical, and often realistic, problem. You have a 14-year-old who doesn't want to come to you. You have a referral from the school that his grades are going down. You made an assessment that there doesn't appear, now anyway, to be any psychiatric disorder. So, what would you do? There's no need to suggest treatment since he doesn't want to come see you. And, besides, you haven't found any problems. You wouldn't continue an assessment since, from the information given, you already concluded there isn't much psychological conflict present. You could do nothing, telling him to come back to you if things get worse. That's one possibility. Another possibility presented as a choice is to explore some educational intervention, such as talking to his teachers to investigate how his school environment might be optimized. So you could certainly propose intervening with the school. And between suggesting this, and doing nothing, we'd go with exploring a school-based intervention
Learning Theory and Behavior Therapy
18. According to M. Seligman's theory of learned optimism, a student with an optimistic attribution style who fails an exam in a class which he usually does well in is most likely to say: © Academic Review
"I was unlucky"© Academic Review
"I didn't study enough"© Academic Review
"the teacher is always a tough grader"© Academic Review
"the test was hard this time"© Academic
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
In Seligman's theory of learned optimism, attributions of optimistic people are believed to be the opposite of attributions of depressed people. Since depressed people make internal, stable, and global attributions to negative events, optimistic people would tend to make external, unstable, and specific attributions in response to negative events. Therefore, we can readily eliminate "B" ("I didn't study enough") since that's an internal attribution. Choice "C" ("the teacher is always a tough grader") is a stable attribution. That leaves Choices "A" ("I was unlucky") and Choice "D" ("the test was hard this time") – which are both external and unstable attributions. Of the two, however, Choice "D" is better since being unlucky would imply that success is a matter of luck.©
Ethics and Professional Practice
19. According to the ethical standards, fees charged to clients are © Academic Review
to be established as early as possible in the professional relationship.© Academic Review
to be established as a function of experience and expertise of the psychologist.© Academic Review
to be based on community standards.© Academic Review
are to be as low as practically possible.©
The Correct Answer is "A"© Academic Review
Only A is stated in the Ethical Principles (see Standard 6.04[a]).©
Which of the following is a mental health service that HMOs must provide under federal requirements? © Academic Review
pre- and post-pregnancy counseling.© Academic Review
psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy.© Academic Review
inpatient psychiatric care.© Academic Review
short-term outpatient evaluative crisis intervention.©
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
Federal laws regarding qualification for an HMO requires that the company provide "short-term (not to exceed 20 visits), outpatient evaluative crisis intervention services", and "medical treatment and referral for alcohol and drug addiction." These are the only qualifications related to mental health services. Most HMOs provide certain additional services, because doing so reduces their costs in the long-run.
Research Design and Statistics
21. The major threat to internal validity of a time-series quasi-experiment would be © Academic Review
maturation.© Academic Review
selection.© Academic Review
regression.© Academic Review
history.©
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
To get this correct (except if you got it correct by chance), you'd need to know what a time-series design is. Basically, you take a number of measurements over time to get a longitudinal baseline trend, then somewhere along the line you introduce your experimental manipulation. If, following the manipulation, you see the trend change, you can infer that your intervention caused the change. But a major threat to the internal validity of this design is a historical event which could co-occur with your experimental manipulation. You'd have no control over these events and they could be a rival explanation for changes in your measurements
Developmental Psychology
22. A child is left alone in a classroom and sees a small toy that he would really like to have. The child doesn't take the toy because he doesn't want his teacher to think he's "bad." According to Kohlberg, this child is in which stage of moral development? © Academic Review
conventional© Academic Review
preconventional© Academic Review
heteronomous© Academic Review
autonomous
The Correct Answer is "A"© Academic Review
Kohlberg distinguishes between three levels of moral development (preconventional, conventional, and postconventional), and each of these levels is further divided into two stages. The child described in this question is in the first stage of the conventional level, which is sometimes called the "good boy/good girl" stage.©
Community Psychology
23. Which of the following is most consistent with the research regarding childhood sexual abuse? © Academic Review
the effects are less severe for younger children compared to older children© Academic Review
the effects are less severe the older the perpetrator is at the time of the abuse© Academic Review
the effects are less severe when the perpetrator is a family member© Academic Review
the effects are less severe when the perpetrator is a stranger
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
Childhood sexual abuse often results in long-term consequences for the victims; however, certain factors have been found to moderate the severity of consequences. For example, the effects are generally less severe when the perpetrator is a stranger rather than a family member. However, approximately 70% of all incidents of childhood sexual abuse are committed by a family member.
Neuropsychology
24. According to current research, an effective treatment for panic attacks is © Academic Review
antimanic drugs.© Academic Review
anticonvulsant drugs.© Academic Review
antipsychotic drugs.© Academic Review
antidepressant drugs.
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
Antidepressants have been shown to be effective in treating panic attacks.
Neuropsychology
25. Anosognosia is most often due to damage to the: © Academic Review
corpus callosum© Academic Review
left temporal lobe© Academic Review
right parietal lobe© Academic Review
occipital lobe
The Correct Answer is "C"© Academic Review
Anosognosia is an inability, or unwillingness, to recognize one's own functional impairment. It most often occurs in people who have left-sided hemiplegia due to damage to the right parietal lobe. Many of these patients maintain normal intellectual functioning, despite the serious lack of self-awareness of their physical disability. The parietal lobe contains the somatosensory cortex which is normally responsible for integrating somatosensory information with visual and other sensory information.©
Clinical Psychology
26. The initial stage in structural family therapy is to "join" the family system. To do so, which of the following would be most useful? © Academic Review
mimesis© Academic Review
enactment© Academic Review
positioning© Academic Review
alignment© Academic
The Correct Answer is "A"© Academic Review
Mimesis is the term used to describe adopting a family's communication and affective style and is one way of joining the family system.©
Clinical Psychology
27. A difference between the brief dynamic therapies and crisis intervention is: © Academic Review
brief dynamic therapies focuses on specific symptoms© Academic Review
crisis intervention focuses on specific symptoms© Academic Review
crisis intervention views the patient’s symptoms as pathological© Academic Review
brief dynamic therapies views the patient’s symptoms as pathological© Academic
The Correct Answer is "D"© Academic Review
Brief dynamic therapies emphasize specific symptoms (response “A”), viewed as pathological, and addresses underlying personality issues with emphasis on altering the normal level of functioning. Crisis intervention also focuses on specific symptoms (response “B”); however, crisis intervention views symptoms as expected responses to acute trauma and seeks to return the person to the pre-trauma level of functioning.
Neuropsychology
28. Anosognosia is: © Academic Review
an inability to recognize objects© Academic Review
a failure to recognize one's own functional impairment© Academic Review
a loss in ability to perform motor acts© Academic Review
a ritual among certain cultures of rubbing noses together© Academic Review
Neuropsychology
28. Anosognosia is: © Academic Review
an inability to recognize objects© Academic Review
a failure to recognize one's own functional impairment© Academic Review
a loss in ability to perform motor acts© Academic Review
a ritual among certain cultures of rubbing noses together© Academic Review
Neuropsychology
29. Which of the following medications is least likely to cause anticholinergic symptoms? © Academic Review
Imipramine© Academic Review
Fluoxetine© Academic Review
Amitriptyline© Academic Review
Venlafaxine
The Correct Answer is "B"© Academic Review
The anticholinergic effects, which include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention and tachycardia, are much more likely to result from the tricylics or heterocyclics than the SSRI's. Of the choices listed only Fluoxetine (Prozac) is an SSRI. Imipramine (Tofranil) and Amitriptyline (Elavil) are tricyclics and Venlafaxine (Effexor) is a heterocyclic
Learning Theory and Behavior Therapy
30. After reading a best-selling book on parenting, a mother decides to stop using all forms of punishment on her child. By following her self-imposed rule, when her child misbehaves the mother could only continue to: © Academic Review
send the child to time-out, which previously resulted in an improvement in the child's behavior© Academic Review
spank the child, which previously led to additional misbehavior© Academic Review
yell "STOP!," which caused the child to discontinue misbehaving for a short period of time© Academic Review
gently explain to the child why his behaviors are inappropriate, which previously resulted in an improvement in the child's behavior©
The Correct Answer is "B"© Academic Review
This question requires you to have a clear understanding of the definitions of reinforcement and punishment. "Reinforcement" always increases the frequency or likelihood of the targeted response. "Punishment" always decreases the frequency or likelihood of the targeted response. "Positive" means that a stimulus is applied, and "negative" means that a stimulus is removed. Choice A is an example of negative punishment because time-out involves the removal of normal activities and because it previously decreased the misbehavior. Choice C involved the application of a stimulus (yelling "Stop!"); thus it is positive, and it resulted in a decreased frequency of the misbehavior, and therefore, it is also a form of punishment. Choice D involves the application of attention; thus it is positive and because it reduces the frequency of the misbehavior, it would also be a form of punishment. Ironically, only Choice B would be permitted by the mother's self-imposed rule because the spanking has resulted in further misbehavior; thus, it would be considered a reinforcement procedure. It would also be positive, because it involves the application of a stimulus.