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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What types of cells are found in the nervous ssystem?
Neurons and neuoglia
What are the components of the Central nervous system?
Brain and Spinal Cord
What are the components of the peripheral nervous system?
All the nervous tissue out side the CNS. Cranial nerves, spinal nerves and ganglia.
What are the three basic parts of neurons? What are there function
Dendrites: receving portion
Cell body: vital cellfunction
Axon: Sending portion
What is mylenation and what is its function?
Layers of lipid membranes around most axon of neurons. Electricaly insulates axon and increases rate of impulse conduction.
What is white matter and where is it found?
Areas in the CNS that appear white & shiny. Highly mylenated areas. Superficial layer of spinal cord Deep in the brain.
What is Grey Matter and where is it found?
Grey areas of the CNS; composed of neural cell bodys and little or no myelin. Deep in spinal cord & superficial in the brain.
What is resting membrain potential?
The voltage that exists across a cell's plasma membrane when the cell is at rest (not conducting an impulse); cell interior is relatively more negative than the cell exterior. Measured in MV.
What do Na/K pumps do?
Transport proteins in plasma membrane that move three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell, using energy from hydrolysis of ATP. (Not to be confused with sodium channels and potassium channels.)
What are graded potentials?
Amount of stimulation or small changes from resting potential caused by opening or closing of ligand or mechanically gated chanels.
Where do graded potetials occur?
Occur in the dendrites of cell bodies and sensory neurons.
What are Action potentials?
Where do they occur and what causes them?
A long-distance regenerative electrical signal transmitted along an axon. The action potential is an all-or-none event. Also called a nerve impulse, spike, or discharge.
What is threshold?
Certain level of depolarization that triggers opening of voltage-gated channels (about -55mV)(graded potentials cause depolarization to threshold)all-or-none response – once threshold is reached, all voltage-gated channels open and the action potential proceeds at a set amplitude
What causes depolarization
Na+ channels open and Na+ rushes in. Membrane becomes less polarized (less negitive on the inside)
What causes repolarization?
K+ channels open and K+ rushes out of cell. Cell goes from +30mv to resting level -70mv.
What is a synapse?
A junction between a neuron and its target cell (another neuron, muscle, or gland). Signals between neurons and other cells are communicated across synapses.
What is a excititory synapse?
A local, graded, depolarization of an excitable cell. Function is to generate an action potential in the postsynaptic cell.
What is a inhibitory synapse?
A local, graded, hyperpolarization of an excitable cell. Functions to prevent generation of an action potential in a postsynaptic cell.
What are neurotransmitters?
Molecules released from synaptic vesicles in neuron axon terminals; bind to receptor sites on target cells, stimulating or inhibiting them; e.g., acetylcholine binds to receptor sites on muscle cell motor end plates, stimulating contraction.
How can neurotransmitter functions be modified?
eurotransmitter synthesis – stimulate or inhibit.
neurotransmitter release – enhance or block
receptors – block or activate agonists activate receptors (mimics) antagonists block receptors neurotransmitter removal – stimulate or inhibit
What are nerves?
An enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons,nerves also include the glial cells that ensheath the axons in myelin.
What are sensory/Afferent Nerves?
Axons of sensory neurons carrying impulses from the peripheral receptors to the brain where integration occurs
What are motor/Efferent Nerves?
Axons of motor neurons carrying impulses from the brain to muscles and other effectors
Where are spinal nerves found?
In the peripheral nervous system connected to the spinal cord.(31 pairs)
What are spinal nerve plexuses and what region does each innervate?
Ventral rami of all but thoracic nerves; form complex networks on either side of body. Cervical,Brachial,lumbar and Sacral plexus.
What three membranes cover the spinal cord?
Dura mater – outer layer
Arachnoid mater – middle layer
Pia mater – inner layer
What is subaracnoid space and epidural space? and what is the significance of each?
Space containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
cushions and nourishes spinal cord site for spinal tap
What is the cauda equina and what is its significance?
Bundle of nerve roots in vertebral canal inferior to conus(end of spinal cord at L1/L2)
What are reflexes?
Fast, automatic responses to specific stimuli
What is basic reflex arc?
Sensory receptor-->Sensory neuron-->Integration center --->Motor neuron--->Effector= reflex
What is the stretch reflex?
Suddenly stretching skeletal muscle causes it to contract protects the muscle – prevents overstretching
What is the withdrawal reflex?
Painful stimulus causes withdrawal of body part
polysynaptic; ipsilateral
What is epidural space? and what is its significance.
Contains adipose, areolar tissue, and blood vessels
cushions spinal cord; site for anesthetic injections.
What are three membranes covering the brain.
Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater
What is the blood brain barrier?
Protects brain by preventing passage of many substances from blood to brain tissue; lipid-soluble substances can cross, but others are regulated by transport proteins
What is the main energy source for neurons?
Glucose that crosses by active transport.
What is cerebrospinalfluid and what is its function? Where is it found and how is it produced?
Clear fluid containing glucose, proteins, lactic acid, ions, and some white blood cells. Circulates through cavities in brain and spinal cord, and in subarachnoid space.
What is the function of cerebrospinalfluid and how is it produced?
site of chemical exchange for CNS tissue floats and cushions delicate neurons. Produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles.
What are the four main divisions of the brain?
What are the major components of the Brain stem?
Medulla oblongata
What are the major components of the Diencephalon
What are the major components of the Cerebellum?
Cerebellar cortex – gray matter
Arbor vitae – branching white matter deep to cortex
Cerebellar peduncles
What are the major components of the Cerebrum?
Left and Right Hemipheres.
What is the main function of the cerebrum?
"Seat of intelligence” – language, math, thought, memory origin of voluntary actions, site of conscious perceptions
What is the main function of the cerebellum?
automatically fine-tunes body movements. Coordinates of skeletal muscle movements
maintains posture, balance, and muscle tone.
What is the main function of the dienchephalon?
Thalamus-major relay system of the brain. Hypothalamus- has no blood-brain barrier,regulator of homeostasis,acts as link between nervous and endocrine systems
What is the main function of the brainstem?
vital centers – nuclei that control vital autonomic functions
cardiovascular center – regulates heart and blood vessels respiratory rhythmicity center – controls respiratory muscles, nuclei of cranial nerves – VIII, IX, X, XI, XII
What are the major sensory areas of the cortex?
Visual cortex – vision; occipital lobe
Auditory cortex – sound; temporal lobe
Gustatory cortex – taste; frontal lobe and insula
Olfactory cortex – smell; medial temporal lobe
Where is the primary motor cortex?
Precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum.
What is hemepheric lateralization?
Functional differences between 2 cerebral hemispheres
What are the crainal nerves?
Cranial nerve I – olfactory nerve,II – optic nerve,III – oculomotor nerve,IV – trochlear nerve,V – trigeminal nerve,VI – abducens nerve,VII – facial nerve,VIII – vestibulocochlear nerve,IX – glossopharyngeal nerve,X – vagus nerve,Cranial nerve XI – accessory nerve,XII – hypoglossal nerve
What is the basic sensory pathway?
1) Sensory receptor
2) Transduction
3) Generation of an action potential
4) Integration
What are sensory receptors?
Free nerve endings – bare dendrites (eg. pain, temperature, touch)
Encapsulated nerve endings – dendrites enclosed in capsule of connective
tissue (eg. touch, pressure)
Specialized cells – cells that produce receptor potentials which trigger
release of neurotransmitters at a synapse with the first-order neuron.
What are the five functional classifications of receptors where are they found and what do they preceive?
Nociceptors – detect pain sensations
Thermoreceptors – detect temperature
Mechanoreceptors – detect distortions of cell membrane (touch, pressure, vibration)
adaptation speed varies
Chemoreceptors – detect concentrations of specific chemicals mainly function in autonomic reflexes special senses – smell, taste
What is the Sensory pathway to the cerebral cortex?
first-order neurons (spinal cord or brain stem) -->second-order neurons – from brain stem or spinal cord to thalamus-->) third-order neurons – from thalamus to cerebral cortex
What is the basic somatic motor pathway?
From cerebral cortex and subconscious motor centers of
lower brain to skeletal muscles
What is the difference beetween somatic and autonomic reflex nervous systems?
activities of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle,and glands; operate at all times, usually without conscious control or perception. Somatic,peripheral nervous system which receives sensory information from skin, muscles and joints and which innervates skeletal muscle
What is the basic autonomic reflex pathway?
Sensory receptors and neuronsfound in internal organs and blood vessels-->integrating centers – hypothalamus-->autonomic motor neurons-->autonomic effectors – smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands.
What is the function of sympathetic divition?
The division of the autonomic nervous system that activates the body to cope with some stressor (danger, excitement, etc.); the fight, fright and flight subdivision; increases rate and force of heartbeat.
What is the function of the parasympathetic division?
Part of the autonomic nervous system. Functions to conserve body resources and maintain homeostasis ("rest and digest").
Which neurons release acetylcholine?
Neurotransmitter released by neurons that stimulate skeletal muscles, some neurons of Autonomic Nervous System
What neurons release norepinephrine?
Hormone from the adrenal medulla associated with Sympathetic Nervous System activation.
What are receptors for olfaction and where are the found
Chemoreceptors and they are found in the olfactory epithelium.
What is the sensory pathway for olfaction?
Oderants bind to receptors--> olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I) synapse in olfactory bulbs with second-order neurons (olfactory tract) then to the olfactory sensory area in the temperal lobe.
What are the receptors for gustation and where are they found?
Chemoreceptors in taste buds on papillae of tongue (some on pharynx)
What are the primary tastes?
Sweet, sour, salty, bitter and
umami (meaty or savory)
What is the sensory pathway for gustation?
First-order neurons project via cranial nerves VII, IX, X to medulla second-order neurons to thalamus
third-order neurons to primary gustatory area
What accessory structures protect the eye?
Eyelids,Eyebrows,lacrimal apparatus, eyelashes and conjunctiva
What is aqueous humor and where is it produced?
Watery fluid in anterior cavitynourishes lens and cornea
ciliary processes – capillaries which filter blood to produce aqueous humor
What is the function of the lens?
Transparent, avascular ball
composed of layers of transparent proteins (crystallins) elastic connective tissue capsule rebounds to round shape cataract – opacity of lens or its capsule which obscures vision
How does accomodation occur?
Focusing light rays on central fovea of retina by changing curvature of lens = changing refraction
ciliary muscle – circular muscle
contraction reduces tension on lens = lens more round relaxation increases tension on lens = flattens lens
What are the three main regions of the ear?
External ear, Middle ear and Internal ear
What is the components of the External,middle and inner ear?
external ear= auricle,external acoustic canal and tympanic membrane
Middle ear= auditory ossicles – 3 smallest bones and Eustachian (auditory) tube – middle ear to nasopharynx opens to equalize air pressure
Inner Ear= bony labyrinth,membranous labyrinth.
What are the receptors for hearing and equilibrium? Where are they found?
Hair Cells (mechanoreceptors.
Found in the Basilary membrane of the cochlea. Saccule and utricle for equilibrium.
What is the pathway for hearing?
sound waves funneled into external ear and strike tympanic membrane producing vibrations varying in frequency and amplitude malleus transmits vibrations to incus, incus to stapes, and stapes to oval window (mechanically amplified)vibrations at oval window membrane produce pressure waves in perilymph of cochlea perilymph pressure waves travel from vestibular duct to tympanic duct to round window (round window prevents echo)pressure waves produce vibrations of basilar membrane hair cells bend against tectorial membrane each segment of basilar membrane vibrates at a different
wavelength – brain interprets as pitch
How do we maintain equilibrium?
Vestibular apparatus – organs of equilibrium.
Static Equilibrium – detect body position relative to gravity
What are target Cells?
Hormone receptors – cell proteins or glycoproteins on specific target cells bind specific hormones and alter cell structure or function
What factors effect target cell response?
1) Hormone concentration
2) Number of hormone receptors
3) Influence of other hormones
How do lipid soluble and water soluble hormones function?
Water-soluble; receptors in plasma membrane of target cells amino acid hormones – derived from amino acids

Lipid-soluble; receptors inside target cells
steroid hormones – derived from cholesterol sex hormones – androgens, estrogens
Which structures integrate functions of the nervous and endocrine system?
Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland.
What are the main endocrine organs?
Pituitary gland, throid gland, Adrenal Gland, Pineal gland.
What are the three phases of of stress response?
Alarm phase, Resistance Phase and Exshaustion Phase