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91 Cards in this Set

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governments in the 17th century
increased state spending, especialy on armies
Which of the following is a characteristic of an absolute state?
Permanent standing armies
In an absolutist state, sovereignty is vested in the monarch alone; representative assemblies, in theory, have no place
The foundation for French absolutism was laid by
Henry did not attempt to rule with absolute power.
The French army under Louis XIV
had an ambulance corps to care for the troops.
Critical to the maintenance of a permanent standing army was the institution of a rational system of recruitment, training and promotion.
Under Louis XIV, the Edict of Nantes
Was revoked
this edict concerned religion.
Charles I's attempt to rule without consulting Parliament
Led to distrust and, eventually, civil war
though some emigrated, others remained in England. Review
In 1596, 1607, 1627, 1647, and 1680, the Spanish crown declared
although Spain fought frequent wars, these years were known for other events.
Who among the following was a proponent of the idea that the purpose of government is to protect life, liberty, and property?
John Locke
Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan had argued that sovereignty derived from the people who transferred it to the monarch by implicit contract; the monarch then had absolute power
Which area of Europe offered the greatest degree of religious toleration in the 17th c.?
The United Provinces of the Netherlands
England offered little official toleration
Thomas Cromwell . . .
assisted in the reorganization of the government which enhanced Henry VIII's power during the 1530s
Thomas Cranmer served as . . .
the Archbishop of Canterbury
Thomas More . . .
was out of favor and was executed for treason concerning Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn
William Cecil . . .
was an aid to Elizabeth I at the end of the 16th century
argued that the reality of God was essential to his concept of the universe; discover coordinate or analytical geometry, develop the science of optics, used "cogito ergo sum"(i think therefore i am) as his starting place, and contended that his dualism was the link between the physical and spiritual worlds.
Austria was attacked twice during the period from 1660 to 1685 by . . .
France and the Ottoman Empire
The Reform Bills of 1832, 1867, and 1884-85 in Great Britain
development of democracy in Great Britain. extending the vote to most men over the age of 21.
The Thermidorean Reaction of July 1794
terminated the Reign of Terror and led to the execution of Robespierre.
National Assembly was dissolved
1791 when the Legislative Assembly was formed
Leopold von Ranke
19th century German historian,
Edward Gibbon
"The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"
contributor to the Enlightenment
Scots David Hume
"History of England and many works in philosophy"
contributor to the Enlightenment
Adam Smith
"Wealth of Nations"
contributor to the Enlightenment
Benjamin Franklin
major force in the American revolution; a multi-faceted genius of the Enlightenment.
contributor to the Enlightenment
The Congress of Vienna
concluded the wars of the Napoleonic era
The Peace of Utrecht (1713)
concluded the War of the Spanish Succession
ended ___ war
the Congress of Berlin (1878
terminated the Russo-Turkish War of 1877_78
ended ___ war
The Peace of Westphalia
closed the Thirty Years' War
ended ____ war
the Peace of Paris (1856
ended the Crimean War.
ended _____ war
The Decembrist Revolution of 1825
Charles Fourier, Robert Dawn, and Claude Saint-Simon
pre-Marxist socialists/Utopian Socialists
opposed to capitalism.
Pierre Proudhon
"What is Property?"
Anarchism was introduced
opposed to capitalism.
Marx and Engels developed
Scientific Socialism, or Marxism
opposed to capitalism.
Marxists who differ with one or more of the basic Marxian notions
opposed to capitalism.
The Frankfurt Assembly
a Pan-German assembly interested in the formulation of an integrated union of German states;
;interested in the Kleindeutsch (Small Germany)
The New Economic Plan (NEP)
Lenin's plan to revitalize the Russian economy after the Russian Civil War
Stalin's first economic plan
the first Five-Year Plan; it resulted in a long-term commitment to collectivization and the expansion of Russian heavy industry.
Oscar Wilde
"Portrait of Dorian Gray "
Thomas Mann
"Death in Venice "
John Kay's "flying shuttle"
made during the 18th century
The Treaty of Rome (1957)
established the European Economic Community; The European Economic Community will expand to include most of the western European nations.
The Vienna Summit (1961)
between Kennedy and Krushchev focused on nuclear test ban negotiations and the war in Laos.
Cuban Missle Crisis
established in 1949
Denis Diderot
centered primarily on technology
Robert Walpole
first Prime Minister of Great Britain; initiated the Cabinet system of government between 1721 and 1740
the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
"Men are born, and always continue free and equal in respect of their rights. Civil distinctions, therefore, can be found only on public utility."
The English Bill of Rights (1689)
a consequence of the Glorious Revolution which resulted in William and Mary coming to power
The Constitution of the Year III (1795)
established the Directory in France; it was a government which was advised by experts or intellectuals
John Major replaced _________ __________ as Great Britain's Prime Minister
Margaret Thatcher
Greek culture
The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 showed
The essential conservatism of the Soviet regime & The Soviet regime's desire to preserve the political status quo
In the 1960s and 1970s, the U.S.S.R. witnessed
A "social revolution while Brezhnev slept" & Urbanization of its population & Growth of a technological intelligentsia
The site of the first successful anti-communist movement was
The "velvet divorce" refers to
the division of Czechoslovakia into two states.
Glasnost and perestroika were advocated by
Mikhail Gorbachev
The revolutions of 1989 led to
The downfall of the Soviet block
The leader of the revolution in Czechoslovakia was
Václav Havel
By declaring Russia independent form the old Soviet Union, Yeltsin caused
Gorbachev's job to disappear.
The person most responsible for the "ethnic cleansing" war in Bosnia was
Slobadan Milosevic
the revolutions of 1989 were largely peaceful everywhere but
East German advocates of a "third way" sought
A version of socialism that avoided Stalinism as well as capitalism
The U.S. went to war against Iraq in 1991 because
Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
The newly united Germany
Would be the strongest state in central Europe & Could, in theory, threaten Soviet security & Affirmed its commitment to peace and a ban on developing weapons of mass destruction
The 1990s witnessed
The emergence of neo-liberal, free market capitalism
Many historians see the 1990s as ushering in
A resurgence of nationalism
For the most part, Russia accepted independence for Soviet successor states, with the exception of
For most of the 1990s, the Russian economy
Declined seriously
With the fall of communism, NATO
Began to admit former communist adversaries to membership
Beginning in 2001, Slobodan Milosevic faced
Trial for crimes against humanity
The Maastricht treaty
Set up the European monetary union
In the late 20th - early 21st c., Europe faces
High unemployment, especially in the former East Germany & A declining population
By equality and human rights, 18th-c. liberalism actually meant
Freedom from government control and, for men, equal opportunity to own property
they were not generally democrats
The bourgeoisie was
The prosperous middle class
The French Jacobins were
revolutionary radicals
the émigres
The aristocrats who fled France
The French National Assembly was established by
the middle class of the Third Estate
The immediate cause of the American Revolution
In 1789 the influential Abbé Sieyès wrote a pamphlet in which he argued that France should be ruled by the
people. his famous pamphlet What is the Third Estate?
Classic liberalism is best exemplified by
The American Constitution and Bill of Rights
In the first stage of the Revolution the French established
a constitutional monarchy.
The country most influenced by the American revolution was
Which of the following had an impact on France right before its revolution?
The experiences of the French soldiers who had fought on the American side & France's need to borrow money to aid the American cause & France's outdated system of taxation
Prior to the revolution, the church in France owned about
105127140f the land
it owned less
Americans objected to the Stamp Act because the tax it proposed
was imposed without their consent.
Louis XVI's summoning of the Estates General in 1788 was stunning because
The Estates had not met since 1614.
Which of the following was a cause of the outbreak of revolution in France in 1789?
The demand of the nobility for greater power and influence
The Third Estates' representatives at the Estates-General were selected by
Election by most adult male commoners
women could not vote
The French Revolution took place at a time of
famine and unemployment
The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis ended
The Habsburg-Valois wars
The earliest known European explorers of North America was
the Vikings
Which of the following statements describes a feature of Spanish colonial policy?
The New World was divided into four viceroyalties