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66 Cards in this Set

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19 million fibers connect the cerebral cortex with the ___ whose fibers connect with the cerebellar cortex
Pons
In the adult brain, the central canal of the embryonic neural tubes form the what?
Ventricles
What produces myelin?

What are tese cells classified as?
Schwann cells and Oligodendrocytes

Glail Cells
What is the purpose of myelin?

What do axons have?

Do you see any endoplasmic reticulum in this exoplasm?

What do you call the endoplasm in a nerve cell?

What do you have in axons?
Speed up conduction

Myelin

No

Nissl body

Cytoskeleton, made up of microtubles and microfilaments
What are the main purposes of microtubules and microfilaments (cytoskeleton)
Guide flow of mitochondria, lipids, synaptic vesicles, proteins and other cell parts to and from a neuron's cell body (soma) through the AXOPLASM
What is the area where the axon meets te soma and there is no endoplasmic reticulum?
Axon Hillock
What causes the iris to constrict?
smooth muscle by the parasympathetic nervous system
What are the functions of an astrocyte?
Foot process at:

Node of Ranvier

Synapse to prevent lateral diffucusion of the transmitter

Epindemal cell

Pial-glial membrane

Around a capillary

(Blood-brain barrier; Pick up let after neural firing; Store glycogen for neurons; Form pial-glail membrane) DOES NOT FOR MYELIN
Why does an astrocyte wrap around a capillary?
Blood-brain barrier
What is neurogenesis?

Which structure has not shown neurogenesis?

Does the dentate gyrus show neurogenesis?
Formation of the nervous system

Anterior horn

Yes
The olfactory bulb connects to what in the superior aspect of nasal cavity?
Olfactory epithelium
Is there neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium?
Yes
Does the visceral nervous system innervate smooth muscle?

Does it innervate heart muscle?

Does it innervate skeletal muscle?
Yes

Yes

No
What kind of sensory does the Fissura faciculus deal with?
Pain
Are ventricles large or small in AIDS patiets?
very large
700 cc of cerebral spinal fluid are produced each day, where does it flow around the CNS?
subarachnoid space
How does the CSF go back in to the vense system?
through arachnoid granulation
What kinds of cells form most of the brain?
neurons and glial
What are the neurons in the brain?
interneurons
What is the gland near the hypothalamus?

What does it do?

What is the circadian rhythm?
Pineal gland

Regulate circadian rhythm

24 hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings
What do we call functional groups with similar function in any of these funiculi?
faciculus
What does the thalamus do?
Relay station for all sensation except olfaction
What is the inferior colliculi's function?
Auditory
What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
1. Higher center for ANS

2. Regulate body temp

3. Regulate thirst

4. Regulate appetite

5. Plays a role with emotions

6. Forming releasing hormones for anterior pituitary hormones

7. Produces hormones for posterior pituitary
The olfactory sensations are coming from waht part of you neural tube?

The optic nerves are coming from what part of your neural tube?

The oculomotor nerves are coming from what part of your neural tube?
Telencephalon

Diencephalon

Mesencephalon
What does the III nerve do?
moves eyes
lifts eyelid
The general efferent nerve extends to only one eye muscle, which muscle is it?
What is the nerve called?
lacteral rectus muscle

by abducens (nerve VI)
Whar nerve comes out of the cerebello pontine angle?
VII and VIII
VII is the first nerve that comes out
What does VII do for you?
facial expression
raise eyebrows
tastebuds on ant 2/3 of tongue
What does nerve VIII do?
Balance and hearing
What nerves come out of the medulla?
VIII-XII
Where does the X nerve go to?
Heart - slows it down "vagus"
What does the basal ganglia do?
modify motor behavior
What bone makes up the septum between the 2 nasal cavities?

What kind of cartilage is anterior to these 2 bones?
Vomer and Perpendicular plate of ethmoid

Hyaline cartilage
What empties into the inferior meatus (conchae)?

Does the nasal lacrimal duct only empty into that one?
Nasal lacrimal duct

Yes
What will the nerves contain in the Brachial Plexus?
somatic Efferent fibers
Does the oligodendrocyte form myelin in the PNS?
No, forms myelin in the CNS
Can dendritic spines have synapses on them?

Dendrites are extensions of the cell membrane and they convey impulses away from the soma (T/F)?
Yes

False
What do we call the last divion of the channels in the lungs?

What are dust cells

What other structures do we have down at the level of the alveoli?
Alveoli

Phagocytic cells in the lung that pick up carbon from cigarettes

Elastic fibers
Secretory cells that produce surfactant
How can you tell the right lobe from the left?

What is covering the outside of lungs?

What do we call the base of the lungs?

What do we call this surface?
right has 3, left has 2

pleura

diaphragmatic surface

costal surface
Does the cancer of the lung frequently metasise to the brain?
Yes
What kind of cartilage makes up the opening of the trachea?
hyaline, C-shaped, posterior
What is behind the trachea?

If someone has an apple caught at 7, should you go above or below for a tracheotomy?
esphogus

below
What does stress do to synapses?

What comes in from the outside of synapse when the electrical impulses come down?

What does Ca combine with in the synapse?
decrease them

Ca

Calmodulin
What does hydrocephalus mean?

The lateral ventricle communicates with the 3rd ventricle (T/F)?
CSF blockage of the brain

True
What are the derivatives of the myelencephalon?

What happens if the anterior neuropore in the neural tube does not close at one month?
Medulla oblongata

Anencephaly (no brain develops)
What are the two nerves that come out of the mesencephalon?

What is over the 3rd nerve nuclease?
3 + 4

Superior coliculi
Is the hippocampus a neocortex or an archicortex?
archicortex
If I have a temporal field of vision, does it cross in the optic chiaism?
Yes
What is the fiber that goes from the dorsal root ganglia into the spinal cord?
Dorsal root ganglia
On what gyri do you find a homunculus?
pre- and post- central gyrus
Are pituitary hormones directly regulated by the thalamus?
No
What do we call a group of fibers with like function in white matter?
Faciculus
If you have a lesion of the nural pathway above the anterior horn cell, what kind of lesion is that?

What is a symptom of LMNL?
Upper motor lesion

Paralysis, no reflexes, atrophy
The cortico spinal tract originating in the right motor cortex influence voluntary movements in the righ side of the body (T/F)?
False
The right lateral spinal tract conveys pain and temperature sensations to the right posterior central gyrus (T/F)?
True
Sensory pathways to the cerebral cortex usually has three neurons, what are they?
1 = dorsal root ganglia
2 = substantia gelationossa in the posterior horn
3 = thalamus
If we have a LMNL will you have spastic paralysis?
No
What kind of epithelium lines the respiratory tract?
pseudostratified, columnar, ciliated with globlet cells
Does respiratory epithelum line the nasal cavity?
No
What two boens make up the hard palate?
Anterior maxillary
Posterior palatine
Where does the middle meatus drain from?
Frontal and maxillary sinus into nasal cavity
There is stratified squamus in the nasal cavity (T/F)?
False
What part goes down from the oral pharynx?
Laryngopharynx
What is the cartilage that is anterior to these folds?
Hyaline cartilage
Where does cancer usually start in the lungs?
Bronchi