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30 Cards in this Set

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Retrovirus
Characteristics
Enveloped
+ssRNA
RT, RNA dependent DNA-poly
dsDNA integrated into host
Retrovirus
Nucleocapsid Contents
2 copies ssRNA
RT
integrase
2 tRNA, which are primers for RT
Retrovirus
Simple proteins (4)
LTR - long terminal repeats; contain promoters, enhancers, and other TF
gag - group specific antigent; internal structural proteins
pol - polymerase, protease, integrase
env - envelope
Retrovirus
Complex virus
all proteins of simple virus plus accessory genes
Retroviridae
Deltaretrovirus
HTLV1 and HTLV 2
onco, acute leukemia
Retroviridae
Lentivirus
HIV
Retroviridae
sub fam spumaretrovirinae
human foamy virus, first discovered but has not been shown to cause humas disease
Retroviridae
sub fam orthoretrovirinae
RNA tumor viruses
leukemias, sarcoma, and lymphomas
Retroviridae
sub fam orthoretrovirinae
Type 1: acute leukemia and sarcoma viruses
rapid onset
no know human infections, birds
host cell growth control factors (proto-oncogenes)
DIRECTLY CAUSE CELLULAR TRANSFORMATION
not cytlytic
Retroviridae
sub fam orthoretrovirinae
Type 2: leukemia
long latency period (up 2 30 yrs)
transcriptional regulator (Tax), which promotes LTR
INDIRECTLY PROMOTE CELL GROWTH
Retroviridae
sub fam orthoretrovirinae
Type 2: leukemia
HTLV-1
acute T cell lymphocytic leukemia adn tropical spastic paraparesis
spread by blood transfusion and sex
CD4 monoclonal; 1 in 20 affected
fatal
Retroviridae
sub fam orthoretrovirinae
Type 2: leukemia
HTLV-2
atyical forms of hairy cell leukemia
Retroviridae
sub fam orthoretrovirinae
Type 2: leukemia
HTLV-5
isolated form malignant cutaneous lymphoma
Retroviridae
Lentivirus
Characteristics
slow onset
neurological and immunosuppresison
HIV 1 and HIV 2
Retroviridae
Lentivirus
Transmission
Smashin'
perinatal and breast milk, reduced with prophylaxis
blood transfusion
occupation
Retroviridae
Lentivirus
Viral Genes
gag: p24
pol: RT
env: gp120 and gp41
tat: activate transcription
ORTHORETROVIRINAE!!
oncoviruses, immortalize
LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE
LENTIVIRINAE!!
slow
LYMPHOCYTOSIS
HIV life cycle
8 steps
1. recognition and attachment - gp120 binds to CD4
2. fusion of envelope: gp41
3. nucleocapsid relased into cytoplasm
4. RT makes dsDNA; tRNA is primer; RNA degrades
5. dsDNA into nucleus/host DNA. dormant until becomes lytic.
6. mRNA synthesized, viral enz., structural proteins make.
7. proteases process proteins
8. envelope proteins, bud out of cell
HIV
Epi
54K new cases/year
2 mil global deaths/year
1.3 mil infections in US
34 mil in world
only HIV 1 in us, isolated in '84
HIV
Clinical
CD4 on lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages
Also dendritic cells of skin and alveolar macrophages
HIV
Course
Median time to AIDS is 10 years; depends on virulence
NOT TRUE LATENCY PERIOD
HIV
Lab Tests
ELISA routine screening
6 mts for seroconversion.
HIV
Lab Tests
confirmation
Western Blot for confirmation
2 of 3 proteins must be present: p24, gp120/160, gp41
HIV
Lab Tests
RNA from serum, PCR
test for viral load to test fo rprognosis and therapeutic efficacy
HIV
Lab Tests
Rapid tests accurate and quick but require confirmation
ora-quick
uni-gold
reveal g2
multispot
HIV
Treatment
Combination therapy
2 RT and one protease
one drugs with 3 RT (Trizivir)
Resistance is common
HIV
Drugs
Nucleoside RT inhibitors
AZT - Retrovir; can lead to anemia
ddI - Videx; can lead to pancreatitis
Non-nucloside RTI
Efavirenz - Sustiva; CNS effects, vivid dreams
Protease Inhibitors - GI Issues
Fusion Inhibitors
PtO Virus
Penis to Oral Virus
(aka Ryan's disease)
Today, my girlfriend dumped me proclaiming she wanted someone more like her "Edward". I asked her who Edward was. She held up a copy her "Twilight" book. She was talking about a fictional vampire.
FML