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28 Cards in this Set

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Reticular activating system
controlled by CNS, controls wakefulness
Bulbar synchronizing region
controls sleepiness
Two stages of sleep
REM and Non-Rem
Elderly REM
Elderly have less Stage 4 & REM sleep,May take longer to fall asleep,May have safety issues
Purpose of Sleep
restoration for next cycle,hormone release for repair and renewal of cells during Non-REM sleep, REM important for cognitive function
Beta-blockers and sleep
can interfere with sleep cycle and cause nightmares, insomnia, wakefulness due to increased h/r and bp.
Factors Affecting Sleep
Illness (pain, nausea, vomiting, emotional distress and dyspnea), Drugs/substances (caffeine, alcohol, prescription drugs), Life Style (shift work etc),Stress,environment,Exercise and fatigue,Food and caloric intake
Sleep Disorder
conditions that if left untreated result in disturbed nightime sleep and associated disorders
Polysomnogram
diagnostic tool for sleep disorders
Insomnia (3 Types)
Chronic difficulty falling asleep, Frequent awakenings, Short or non-restorative sleep
Sleep Apnea
disorder where person cannot sleep and breathe at same time, cessation of respirations from 10 seconds to one to two minutes with 10 - 100 events per night.
Types of Sleep Apnea
Obstructive (most common, muscles of oral cavity and throat relax during sleep and obstruct airway.Central Sleep Apnea(results from dysfunction of brain's respiratory control center)
Parasomnias
Sleep disorder that produces undesirable physical symptoms as a result of autonomic nervous system changes and skeletal muscle activity during sleep.
Common Parasomnias
Somnambulism, Nocturnal Enuresis, Bruxism, Night Terrors
Treatment for Obstructive Apnea
CPAP, Side lying, avoid alcohol, weight loss, surgery (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), Laser assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LUAP).
Signs and Symptoms of Obstructive apnea
snoring respirations, enlarged tonsils, nasal polyps, deviated septum. Excessive daytime sleepiness.
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
removal of the uvula and tonsils
Narcolepsy
CNS dysfunction of mechanisms that regulate sleep/wake states.
Central Sleep Apnea- definition
Dysfunction of brain's respiratory control center
Central Sleep Apnea- Causes
Brain stem injury, encephalitis, muscular dystrophy.
Nocturnal Enuresis
Present in 10% of children at 5 years of age and 1% at 15 years of age. More common in boys than girls, Most often first born,Family tendency
Bruxism
Teeth Grinding, occurs mainly in children untreated can cause TMJ and tooth damage
Bruxism cause
stress
Bruxism treatment
occlusion block/guard
Night Terrors
person awakes frightened and screaming, short duration, tachycardia and hypertension
Common Sleep Agents
halcion and ambien
Used as sleep agents- benzodiazepenes
Xanax (alprazolam), Valium (diazepam), Dalmane(flurazepam), Ativan (lorazepam), Serax (oxazepam), Restoril (Temazepam) Versed
Number one nursing intervention for sleep disturbances in hospital
Control noise.