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34 Cards in this Set

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DYSPNEA
Difficulty breathing
Uncomfortable
Inappropriate to level of exertion
TACHYPNEA
Increased breathing
Rapid, shallow
Results from restrictive lung disease, pleuritic chest
HYPERPNEA/HYPERVENTILATION
Rapid, deep breathing
Caused by exercise, anxiety, & metabolic acidosis
BRADYPNEA
Slow breathing
May be secondary to diabetic coma, drug-induced resp. depressio, increased intracranial pressure
CHEYNE-STOKES BREATHING
Periods of deep breathing alternating with periods of apnea.

Causes - heart failure, uremia, drug-induced resp depression & brain damage
KUSSMAUL BREATHING
Deep breathing due to metabolic acidosis

May be fast, normal or slow
BIOT'S BREATHING/ATAXIC
Unpredictable irregular breathing
Breaths may be shallow, deep & stop for short periods

Causes resp depression, brain damage
PAROXYSMAL NOCTURNAL DYSPNEA (PND)
Episodes of sudden dyspnea and orthopnea that awaken a pt from sleep, prompting pt to sit up, standup, or go to a window for air

Causes (L) ventricular heart failure or mitral stenosis
ORTHOPNEA
Dyspnea that occurs when the pt is lying down and improves when the pt sits up

Suggests (L) ventricular heart failure or mitral stenosis
PURSED-LIP BREATHING
Pursed lips during exhalation

In pts with COPD
RALE DE LA MORT
Crackle
CRACKLE
Adventitious sounds
Called Rales
Result from tiny explosions when small airways, deflated during expiration, pop open during inspiration

May be due to abnormalities of lungs or airways (ie, pneumonia, fibrosis, early CHF, bronchitis)
WHEEZE
Adventitious sounds
Musical resp. sounds (high pitched)

Caused by partial airway obstruction from secretions, tissue, inflammation or foreign body
RHONCHI
Vibration of chest wall that may be felt with a hand on the chest surface

Low pitched sound like snoring
HEMOPTYSIS
Coughing up blood from the lungs
BRONCHITIS
Inflammation of one or more bronchi, usually secondary infection
COSTOCHONDRITIS
Condition caused by inflammation of costochondral joints

Perceived as chest pain with tenderness to one or both sides of sternum

Pain is often worse with deep breathing or moving the chest wall
PNEUMONIA
Inflammation of lung parenchyma from resp. bronchioles to alveoli

Caused by bacterial or viral infection
BRONCHIECTASIS
Chronic Inflammation
Chronic cough, purulent sputum, foul-smelling, may be bloody

Caused by lung infection or congenital (cystic fibrosis)
STRIDOR
Audible high-pitched wheeze

Sign of airway obstruction in larynx or trachea
PNEUMOTHORAX
Leakage of air into pleural space, usually unilaterally, thru blebs on visceral pleura

Results in partial or complete collapse of lung with sudden onset of dyspnea

Lung recoils from chest wall
PLEURAL EFFUSION
Fluid accumulation in pleural space, separating air-filled lung from chest wall

Percussion - Dull to flat
HEMOTHORAX
Effusion of blood into pleural cavity
EMPYEMA
Accumulation of pus in a body cavity

Refers to thoracic empyema if no descriptive qualifier
ATELECTASIS
Collapsed lung from airway obstruction
TACTILE FREMITIS
Palpable vibrations transmitted thru bronchopulmonary tree to chest wall when pt speaks

Use ulnar side of hand to optimize vibratory sensitivity of bones in hand

Ask pt to repeat words "ninety nine" or "one-to-one"
BRONCHOPHONY
Louder clearer voice sounds
WHISPERED PECTORILOQUY
Louder clearer whispered sounds
EGOPHONY/E-TO-A CHANGES
Lobar consolidation from pneumonia. Sound quality is nasal.

"ee" sounds like "ay"
FLAIL CHEST
Parodoxical movements of thorax due to fractured ribs
PECTUS EXCAVATUM
(FUNNEL CHEST)
Depression in lower portion of sternum

May cause of compression of heart and great vessels may cause murmurs
PECTUS CARINATUM
(PIGEON CHEST)
Anterior displacement of sternum increasing anteroposterior diameter
GOODPASTURE SYNDROME
Combination of pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis

Also known as "lung purpura glomerulonephritis complex"

Some consider it a hypersensitivity reaction
PANCOAST SYNDROME
Lower trunk brachial plexopathy and Horner Syndrome

Due to malignant tumor in region of superior pulmonary sulcus