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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is considered a:
-Upper Respiratory Infection
-Lower Respiratory Infection
Upper is anything above the larynx.

Lower is anything below it.
What are the 5 usual defense mechanisms of the respiratory tract?
1. sIgA and lysozyme
2. Cilia and mucous membrane of trachea
3. Cough/sneeze/swallow reflexes
4. Normal oropharynx flora
5. Alveolar macrophages
What is a usual infection in the oral cavity?
Thrush caused by C. albicans
What 2 infections cause a membrane in the throat?
-Corynebacterium diphtherieae
-Vincent's angina - fusobacterium and borellia
What is the most common cause of pharyngitis?
Strep A
what commonly causes acute laryngitis?
Viral infections
What is acute epiglottiditis? What should you do with a specimen from it?
-Swelling of the epiglottis; causes fever and resp obstructn.
-Don't do anything - don't even get a swab or you'll make it worse.
What commonly causes epiglottididis?
Haemophilus influenzae.
Isolated from a throat culture was N. meningitidis; what is your initial thought?
Probably an infection elsewhere in the body, not necessarily an upper resp infection.
What else indicates a problem elsewhere?
Large amounts of:
S. aureus
S. pneumo
H. influenzae
What types of specimens are usually obtained for an upper respiratory infection?
-Nasopharyngeal swab
-Throat culture
What organism would you do a nasopharyngeal swab for?
Bordatella pertussis
What is a routine culture setup for an upper respiratory tract specimen?
Possibly CNA/LEMB.
What is done for an upper resp screen workup?
Just an SXT.
What is normal flora in the LOWER respiratory tract?
NOTHING; but expectorated sputums usually pickup oropharyngeal normal flora.
When culturing a sputum, what is the most common reason?
What is the mechanism that causes pneumonia?
1. Organism enters alveoli
2. Inflammation - fluid, WBCs, RBCs go into alveoli.
3. Consilidation/bad air exchng.
What symptoms present with pneumonia?
Fever, chest pain, cough and sputum.
What is Bronchitis caused by?
Usually viruses, often secondary to a bacterial infection.
What should be the first thing done with a sputum specimen?
What is a good sputum specimen?
One with WBCs, and not epithelial cells.
What do lots of epithelial cells in the sputum indicate?
It's just spit, not real expectorated sputum.
How should a sputum specimen be processed?
1. Add sputolytic agent for 15 min.
2. Add neutralizer
3. Centrifuge, decant, inoculate sediment to BA, CA.
What media are inoculated for Mycobacteria?
What media is inoculated for Mycoplasma pneumonia?
Serum and Yeast Extract
What is the most common cause of pharyngitis?
Beta strep grp A
What other pathogens cause pharyngitis?
-N. gonorrhoeae
-Corynebacterium diphtheriae