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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is considered a:
-Upper Respiratory Infection
-Lower Respiratory Infection
Upper is anything above the larynx.

Lower is anything below it.
What are the 5 usual defense mechanisms of the respiratory tract?
1. sIgA and lysozyme
2. Cilia and mucous membrane of trachea
3. Cough/sneeze/swallow reflexes
4. Normal oropharynx flora
5. Alveolar macrophages
What is a usual infection in the oral cavity?
Thrush caused by C. albicans
What 2 infections cause a membrane in the throat?
-Corynebacterium diphtherieae
-Vincent's angina - fusobacterium and borellia
What is the most common cause of pharyngitis?
Strep A
what commonly causes acute laryngitis?
Viral infections
What is acute epiglottiditis? What should you do with a specimen from it?
-Swelling of the epiglottis; causes fever and resp obstructn.
-Don't do anything - don't even get a swab or you'll make it worse.
What commonly causes epiglottididis?
Haemophilus influenzae.
Isolated from a throat culture was N. meningitidis; what is your initial thought?
Probably an infection elsewhere in the body, not necessarily an upper resp infection.
What else indicates a problem elsewhere?
Large amounts of:
S. aureus
S. pneumo
H. influenzae
Enterobacteriaceae
What types of specimens are usually obtained for an upper respiratory infection?
-Nasopharyngeal swab
-Throat culture
What organism would you do a nasopharyngeal swab for?
Bordatella pertussis
What is a routine culture setup for an upper respiratory tract specimen?
BA, CA, SXT.
Possibly CNA/LEMB.
What is done for an upper resp screen workup?
Just an SXT.
What is normal flora in the LOWER respiratory tract?
NOTHING; but expectorated sputums usually pickup oropharyngeal normal flora.
When culturing a sputum, what is the most common reason?
Pneumonia.
What is the mechanism that causes pneumonia?
1. Organism enters alveoli
2. Inflammation - fluid, WBCs, RBCs go into alveoli.
3. Consilidation/bad air exchng.
What symptoms present with pneumonia?
Fever, chest pain, cough and sputum.
What is Bronchitis caused by?
Usually viruses, often secondary to a bacterial infection.
What should be the first thing done with a sputum specimen?
-Direct smear FOR LEUKOCYTES VS. EPITHELIAL CELLS.
What is a good sputum specimen?
One with WBCs, and not epithelial cells.
What do lots of epithelial cells in the sputum indicate?
It's just spit, not real expectorated sputum.
How should a sputum specimen be processed?
1. Add sputolytic agent for 15 min.
2. Add neutralizer
3. Centrifuge, decant, inoculate sediment to BA, CA.
What media are inoculated for Mycobacteria?
-Middlebrook
-Lowenstein-jensen
What media is inoculated for Mycoplasma pneumonia?
Serum and Yeast Extract
What is the most common cause of pharyngitis?
Beta strep grp A
What other pathogens cause pharyngitis?
-N. gonorrhoeae
-Mycoplasma
-Corynebacterium diphtheriae