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38 Cards in this Set

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The force required to bring in a given amount of air into the chest
WOB - Work Of Breathing
The additional volume of air that the lungs can inhale and exhale when breathing to the limit of capacity in times of stress
Pulmonary Reserve
Potential ability of the heart to perform work beyond that necessary under basal conditions
Cardiac Reserve
(medicine) potential capacity to respond in order to maintain vital functions
Reserve
A primary inflammatory disease of the airways with clinical manifestations of increased bronchial hyper reactivity and airflow obstruction secondary to inflammation
Asthma
Chronic cough with excessive sputum production of unknown specific etiology for three months per year for two or more consecutive years.
Chronic Bronchitis
The enlargement of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles, with loss of elastic tissue and destruction of alveolar septal walls
Emphysema
Shortness of breath
Especially during exertion, known as DOE (dyspnea on exertion)
Dyspnea
The study of one celled microscopic organisims that you cannot see with the naked eye.
Microbiology
*More advanced
*Reproduce by Mitosis
*Have a nucleus and cell membrane
*Contain membrane bound large organelles
*Sizes - 5 to 10 micrometers
Eukaryotic Cell
*Simple architecture
*Reproduce by binary fission
*Capsule or Slime Layer
*Size - 1 micron to 10 mm
Prokaryotic Cell
Algae (not blue green)
Fungi
Protozoa
Slime Molds

(Normal Flora)
Eukaryotic Bacteria
Blue Green Alga(Cyanobacteria)
Bacteria
Mycoplasma
Rickettsiae
Prokaryotic Bacteria
Layer outside the cell wall. A hydrophillic gel of polysaccharides.
Total layer = capsule
Partial enclosure = slime layer
Capsule
The outer most structure of many bacteria. Gives cell its shape, protects the cell from exploding and toxic chemicals. Pores for nutrients in and waste out.
Bacterial Cell Wall
Two Layers
*Cytoplasmic membrane

*Cell wall - much thicker than gram negative (peptidoglycan with teichoic acid)
Gram Positive
Three Layers
*Cytoplasmic membrane

*Periplasmic space - Peptidoglycan

*Outer layer - made of LPS (Lipopolysaccharides
Gram Negative
The only bacteria that does not have a cell wall
Mycoplasma
Eat, grow, and divide.
Microbes
Five Basic Shapes

Cocci - spherical shape
Bacilli - rod shaped
Vibrios - comma shaped
Spirillium - spiral shaped
Fusiform - free, no shape

Extra Shape Information
Strep - straight chain
( Streptococci)

Diplo - two in pair
( diplococci)

Staph - a grape like cluster
(staphylococci)
Bacteria Shapes
Gram Stain -
(Gram positive) Blue
(Gram negative) Red

Acid Fast ( mycobacterium tuberculosis
Stain Classifications
Aeration
Hydration
PH
Temperature
Bacterial Growth Requirements
Cold environments
Psychrophillic (10 to 20 C)

Middle environments
Mesophillic (20 to 40 c)

Hot environments
Thermophyllic (50 to 6 c)
Temperature Ranges
Obligate Aerobes
(With oxygen)

Obligate Anaerobes
(Without oxygen)

Facultative
(With or without oxygen
Aeration
Lag - Slow growth

Log - Exponential growth

Stationary - Plateau of growth

Death - Accumulated waste, loss of oxygen, organism dies
Bacterial and Cell Division in Medium
*Bacillus Anthracis
- Anthrax

*Clostridum Botulinum
- Botulism, gas gangrene, Botox

*Clostribum Tetani
- Tetanus

*Form spores
Endospore Formation
(Certain gram + bacilli)
Multi Resistant Staph Aureus
MRSA
They inhibit or kill bacteria or other microorganisms themselves. They are produced by bacteria or fungi or by synthetic means in the lab
Antibiotics (how they kill)
Cause death in a debilitated host

Pathogen - cause disease in a normal host
Opportunistic Organisms
They dont hurt us they live with us. They live in their own areas, own environment. Can become pathogenic, move, overgrow, balance.
Normal Flora
How rapidly it can produce a change in the physical condition of the host
Virulence
*Can it protect itself
from host defenses, and being engulfed by phagocyte cells such as leukocytes

*How it attacks the host.
Strength of attaching mechanism

*How rapidly it can produce
in the patient. Rapid reproduction more pathogenic (virulent)

*The physical condition of the host. Immunocompromised, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, transplant patients, weak immune system
Virulence Factors
Is not alive. Viruses live inside of our tissues cells
Virus
Infecton with clostribium tetani (gram positive). Excreted from cell. The most potent exotoxin known
Exotoxins
Gram negative bacteria produce endotoxins. Potent toxins released from the death of the cell. Some cause anaphylactic reaction
Endotoxins
Live beside the cells. (outside)
Bacteria
Rod shaped
Gram positive
Anaerobe
Spore former
Secretes Exotoxins
It cause a toxic food poisoning known as botulism
Causes flacid type paralysis
Clostridium Botulinum
Gram positive
Cocci sphere shape
In pairs and chains
May produce capsules
Aerobic bacteria
Community acquired
Streptococcus pneuminiae