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87 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the primary functions of the respiratory system?
Obtaining oxygen and removing carbon dioxide
Respiratory tubes do what?
filter air and transport air to lungs and microscopic air sacswhere gases are exchanged
Respiratory organs also do what?
entrap particles from incoming air produce vocalsounds, sense of smell regulation of blood ph
What is respiration?
the entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells is called respiration
What is included in the upper respiratory tract?
nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx
What is included in lower respiratory tract
larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
Internal hairs of the nose do what?
prevents entry of large particles carried in the air
What divides the nasal cavity into right and left portions and is composed of bone and cartilage?
nasal septum
what curls out from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity on each side dividing the cavity into passageways?
Nasal conchae
what supports the mucous membrane and helps increase its surface area?
nasal conchae
What happens to particles that are trapped inthe mucus?
they are carried to the pharynx by ciliary action swallowed and brought to stomach where gastric juice destroys
what does the paranasal sinuses do?
reduce the weight of the skull and resonant chambers that affect quality of the voice
It is a passage way for food traveling from the oral cavity to the esophagus and for air passing between the nasal cavity and the larynx
Pharynx
what helps to produce sound and speech?
pharynx
what is an enlargement in the airwayat the top of the trachea and below the pharynx?
Larynx
What conducts air in and out of the trachea and prevents foreign objects fromentering the trachea?
The larynx
Inside the larynx 2 pairs of horixontal vocal folds make the what?
vocal cords
where are the vocal cords housed?
larynx
what are the false vocal cords?
the upper pair
what are the true vocal cords?
the lower cords
what controls the pitch of sound?
increasing tension or decreasing tension
what raises the pitch?
increasing tension
what lowers the pitch?
decreasing tension
Stronger blast of air produce what?
louder sounds
Weaker blast of air produce what?
softer sounds
during normal breathing vocal cords are?
relaxed
What is the triangular slit (opening) between the vocal cords called?
the glottis
what closes the glottis when food is swallowed?
the false vocal cords
What prevents food from entering the trachea
the glottis and false vocal cords
Waht is a flexible cylindrical tube that extends downward snterior to the esophagus?
Trachea
what splits into the right and left bronchi?
the trachea
what lines the inner walls of the trachea
ciliated mucous mebrane with many goblet cells
what consits of branched airways leading fromthe trachea to the microscopic air sacs in the lungs?
the bronchial tree
bronchus divides into what?
sencondary bronchi
secondary bronchi divides into what
tertiary bronchi
tertiary bronchi divided into smaller and smaller tubes called what?
bronchioles
bronchioles divide to form what?
alveolar ducts
alveolar ducts lead to what?
alveolar sacs
alveolar sacs lead to what?
alveoli
what is surrounded by capillaries and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood through the walls it?
alveoli
what are cone shaped organs in the thoracic cavity?
lungs
what is attached to the lungs?
visceral pleura
what lines the thoracic cavity?
parietal pleura
wht lubricates the pleural cavity?
serous fluid
serous fluid does what
reduces friction between the two pleura
How many lobes does the right lung have?
3
how many lobes does the left lung hae?
2
the movement of air from the outside of the body into the and out of the bronchial tree and alveoli is what?
breathing or ventilation
What is the force that moves air into the lungs?
atmospheric pressure due to weight of air
when does outside air pressure flow into the lungs?
when pressure inside the lungs decrease
how does air pressurinside the lungs decrease?
by increasing the size of the thoracic cavity
what is the function of
surfactant?
it is secreted to reduce the aleoli tendencyto collapse.when lung volume is low
where does the force for expiration come?
from the elastic recokl of tissues and from surface tension
what causes the thoracic cage and lungs to recoil and return to thier original shapes
diaphragm and muscles relaxing following inspiration
where are gases exchanged?
alveoli
what provides andentrancefor air in whichair is filtered?
nose
what is a common passagewayfor food and air?
the Pharynx
what aids in producing sounds for speach
the pharynx
what is superior to the trachea and inferior to the pharnyx
the larynx
what is the function of the lower vocal cords?
sound production
What closes the glotis when swallowing?
the vocal cords and the epiglottis
What is anterioar to the esophagus?
the trachea
What does the bronchial tree consist of ?
branched tubes leading form the trachea to the lungs
The bronchial tree begins with two primary what?
bronchi
where do the bronchi lead?
to the lungs
what are the smallest branches ofthe bronchial tree called?
bronchiols
what are the lungs seperated by?
mediastinum
what are the lungs enclosed by?
diaphram
what are theforces of exspirationdue to ?
the elastic recoil of the lungs and muscle tissus and surface tension
what are tiny sacs clustered at the distal endofthe aveola ducts?
aveoli
Gases diffues from areas ofwhat?
high pressure to low pressure
Which of the following organs is a part of the lower respiratory system?
bronchi
The function of nasal hairs is to
prevent entry of large particles in inspired air
The function of the paranasal sinuses is to
reduce the weight of the skull act as resonant chambers that affect voice quality both
Which of the following structures does not participate in the production of speech
epiglottis
The membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and forms the lateral walls of the mediastinum is the
parietal pleura
The pressure in the thoracic cavity
is less than atmospheric pressure during inspiration
The force responsible for normal expiration comes mainly from
elastic recoil of tissues in the lung and thoracic wall
The respiratory center responds to concentrations of
carbon dioxide
The inflation reflex is activated by
stretch receptors in the bronchioles and alveoli
The most abundant gas in room air is
nitrogen
Oxygen is transported in the blood
dissolved in plasma combined with hemoglobin
what found on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity, increase the surface area of nasal mucus membrane
Nasal conchae,
what adds moisture to inspired air
Mucous membranes
The what is a flap-like structure that closes the larynx
epiglottis
When the diaphragm contracts, the size of the thoracic cavity increases, and pressure within the cavity does what?
decreases
Attraction of the pleural membranes for each other helps maintain reduced pressure in the thorax compared to the atmosphere in what?
in the thorax compared to the atmosphere