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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a system supplying the body with oxygen and disposing of carbon dioxide
The respiratory system
movement of air into and out of the lungs
pulmonary ventilation
movement of oxygen from the lungs to the boold and of co2 from the blood to the lungs
external respiration
movement of o2 from blood to the tissue cells and of co2 from tissue cells to blood.
internal respiration
nose and nasal cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs and alveoli
organs of the respiratory system
connects the nasal cavity and mouth with the larynx and esophagus
called throat
13cm long
3 regions
nasopharnyx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
pharynx
voice box
routing of food into the esophagus
responsible for voice production
routing of air into trachea
larynx
descends from the larynx thru the neck and into the mediastinum
divides into the 2 primary bronchi @ mid thorax
10-12cm long
layers are
mucosa
submucosa
adventitia
trachea
right and left primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary
bronchiols(under 1 mm)
terminal bronchioles(under 0.5mm)
the bronchial tree
The cartilage rings are replaced by irregular plates of cartilage until in the bronchioles no cartilage is present
the mucosal epithelium thisn as it changes from psuedostratified columnar to columnar and then cuboidal epithlium in the terminal broncholes.
the relative amount of smooth muscle increases as the passageways become smaler.
structural changes of the bronchial tree
presence of alveoli
respiratory membrane
the respiratory zone
the pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
intrapulmonary pressure
the pressure within the pleural cavity
intrapleural pressure
recoil of the lungs
alveolar fluid surface tension
lung collasping forces(needed to close lungs so that air can leave)
the pressure exerted by the air. at sea level it is 760 mmHg
atmoshpheric pressure
a system supplying the body with oxygen and disposing of carbon dioxide
The respiratory system
movement of air into and out of the lungs
pulmonary ventilation
movement of oxygen from the lungs to the boold and of co2 from the blood to the lungs
external respiration
movement of o2 from blood to the tissue cells and of co2 from tissue cells to blood.
internal respiration
nose and nasal cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs and alveoli
organs of the respiratory system
connects the nasal cavity and mouth with the larynx and esophagus
called throat
13cm long
3 regions
nasopharnyx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
pharynx
voice box
routing of food into the esophagus
responsible for voice production
routing of air into trachea
larynx
descends from the laryns thru the neck and into the mediastinum
divides into the 2 primary bronchi @ mid thorax
10-12cm long
layers are
mucosa
submucosa
adventitia
trachea
right and left primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary
bronchiols(under 1 mm)
terminal bronchioles(under 0.5mm)
the bronchial tree
The cartilage rings are replaced by irregular plates of cartilage until in the bronchioles no cartilage is present
the mucosal epithelium thisn as it changes from psuedostratified columnar to columnar and then cuboidal epithlium in the terminal broncholes.
the relative amount of smooth muscle increases as the passageways become smaler.
structural changes of the bronchial tree
presence of alveoli
respiratory membrane
the respiratory zone
the pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
intrapulmonary pressure
the pressure within the pleural cavity
intrapleural pressure
recoil of the lungs
alveolar fluid surface tension
lung collasping forces(needed to close lungs so that air can leave)
the pressure exerted by the air. at sea level it is 760 mmHg
atmoshpheric pressure
a system supplying the body with oxygen and disposing of carbon dioxide
The respiratory system
movement of air into and out of the lungs
pulmonary ventilation
movement of oxygen from the lungs to the boold and of co2 from the blood to the lungs
external respiration
movement of o2 from blood to the tissue cells and of co2 from tissue cells to blood.
internal respiration
nose and nasal cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs and alveoli
organs of the respiratory system
connects the nasal cavity and mouth with the larynx and esophagus
called throat
13cm long
3 regions
nasopharnyx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
pharynx
voice box
routing of food into the esophagus
responsible for voice production
routing of air into trachea
larynx
descends from the laryns thru the neck and into the mediastinum
divides into the 2 primary bronchi @ mid thorax
10-12cm long
layers are
mucosa
submucosa
adventitia
trachea
right and left primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary
bronchiols(under 1 mm)
terminal bronchioles(under 0.5mm)
the bronchial tree
The cartilage rings are replaced by irregular plates of cartilage until in the bronchioles no cartilage is present
the mucosal epithelium thisn as it changes from psuedostratified columnar to columnar and then cuboidal epithlium in the terminal broncholes.
the relative amount of smooth muscle increases as the passageways become smaler.
structural changes of the bronchial tree
presence of alveoli
respiratory membrane
the respiratory zone
the pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
intrapulmonary pressure
the pressure within the pleural cavity
intrapleural pressure
recoil of the lungs
alveolar fluid surface tension
lung collasping forces(needed to close lungs so that air can leave)
the pressure exerted by the air. at sea level it is 760 mmHg
atmoshpheric pressure
holding temp constant, volume and pressure of a gas are inversely proportional
boyles law
occurs due to the inpiratory muscles contracting increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity
Diaphram moves inferiorly and flattens out
Intercostals contracts pulling the rib cage up and out
inspiration
a passive process
dependent on the natural elasticity of the lungs
inspiratory muscles relax allwoing the rib cage to descend and the lungs to recoil
expiration
contraction of abdominal wall muscles
increases the intra abdominal pressure
depresses the rib cage
forced expiration
respiratory passageway resistance
lung compliance
alveolar surface tension forces
physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation
the ease with which the lungs can be expanded
distension is required for normal inspiration
recoil is essential for normal expiration
lung compliance
a gas-liquid boundary
liquid molecules are more strongly attracted to each other than to a gas
alveolar surface tension forces
draws liquid molecules closely together and reduced overall contact with gas molecules
resists any force that tend to incease the area of the surface
surface tension
a detergent like lipoprotein
produced by type2 alveolar cells
reduced alveolar surface tension
BREAKS UP SURFACE TENSION LETTING THE LUNGS RECOIL
surfactant
volume changes during normal quiet breathing
Tidal volume (tv)
volume of air that can be inspired forcibly beyond the tidal volume
Inspiratory reserve(IVR)
the amount of air that can be evactuated from the lungs after a tidal expiration
expiratory reserve(ERV)
air remaining in the lungs after strenuous expiration
residual volume (RV)
total volume of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration TV+IRV
inspiratory capacity
the combined residual and expiratory reserve volumes...volume of air remaining in the lungs after a tidal expiration
functional residual capacity
holding temp constant, colume and pressure of a gas are inversely proportional
boyles law
occurs due to the inpiratory muscles contracting increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity
Diaphram moves inferiorly and flattens out
Intercostals contracts pulling the rib cage up and out
inspiration
a passive process
dependent on the natural elasticity of the lungs
inspiratory muscles relax allwoing the rib cage to descend and the lungs to recoil
expiration
contraction of abdominal wall muscles
increases the intra abdominal pressure
depresses the rib cage
forced expiration
respiratory passageway resistance
lung compliance
alveolar surface tension forces
physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation
the ease with which the lungs can be expanded
distension is required for normal inspiration
recoil is essential for normal expiration
lung compliance
a gas-liquid boundary
liquid molecules are more strongly attracted to each other than to a gas
alveolar surface tension forces
draws liquid molecules closely together and reduced overall contact with gas molecules
resists any force that tend to incease the area of the surface
surface tension
a detergent like lipoprotein
produced by type2 alveolar cells
reduced alveolar surface tension
BREAKS UP SURFACE TENSION LETTING THE LUNGS RECOIL
surfactant
volume changes during normal quiet breathing
Tidal volume (tv)
volume of air that can be inspired forcibly beyond the tidal volume
Inspiratory reserve(IVR)
the amount of air that can be evactuated from the lungs after a tidal expiration
expiratory reserve(ERV)
air remaining in the lungs after strenuous expiration
residual volume (RV)
total volume of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration TV+IRV
inspiratory capacity
the combined residual and expiratory expiration...volume of air remaining in the lungs after a tidal expiration
functional residual capacity
the total volume of exchangeable air. the sum of the tidal, Ispiratory reserve and the expiratory reserve volumes
vital capacity
the sum of all lung volumes
6000ml
total lung capacity
total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas in the mixture
Daltons law of partial pressure
increased levels of co2 and h2o vapors and much less o2
o2 diffuses from the alveoli into the pulmonary blood and co2 diffuses in the opposite direction
mixing of gas that occurs with each breath causing the alveolar to become constant
alveolar gas composition
partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities
thickness of the respiratory membrane
pulmonary gas exchange
what determines external respiration
o2 is carried in the blood by
hemoglobin
plamsa
oxyhemoglobin
hbo2
deoxyhemoglobin
HHb
when all 4 heme groups are bound to o2 a hemoglobin molecule is saidto be
fully saturated
when 1, 2,3, o2 molecules are bound, hemoglobin is
partially saturated
the lower the PO2 and the hemoglobin saturation with o2 the more co2 that can be carried in the blood.
haldane effect
carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
respiratory ventilation provides a fast acting system to adjust blood ph
influence of co2 on blood ph
pacesetting respiratory center
named the inspiratory center
sends a burst of nerve impulses along the phrenic and intercostal nerves to excite the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
due to nueral excitation the thorax expands and air rushes into the lungs
respiratory rate of 12-15 breaths per minute
Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
contains a more even mix of neurons
its role is mainly during forced breathing
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
pons centers can influence and modify the activity of medullary neurons
called
pneumotaxic center
slows things down
Pons respiratory centers
pulmonary irritant reflexes
Hering breuer reflex
hypothalmic controls
cortical controls
chemical factors
chemorecptors
factors influencing the rate and depth of breathing
most potent
arterial pco2 is 40mmhg and is mantained withing +,- 3 mmhg
PCO2
leads to hyperventilation
hypercapnia(high co2 levels)
leads to hypoventilation and can result in apnea
hyporcapnia(low CO2 levels)
found in aortic bodies and carotid bodies
peripheral chemoreceptors
squamous cells that form the major part of the alveolar wall
type 1 alveolar cells
secrete a fluid containg surfactant that coats the gas exposed alveolar surfaces
type 2 alveolar cells
warms, moistens and filters air
nose
house respiratory passages smaller than the primary bronchi
lungs
protruding medially from each lateral wall of nasal cavity are 3 scroll like mucosa covered projections
superior,middle, inferior conchae
groove inferior to each concha is
meatus
the nasal cavity is surrounded by a ring of
paranasal sinuses
serves only as an air passageway.
nasopharynx
marks the point where the trachea branches into the 2 primary bronchi
carina
thin walled air sacs
alveoli
the respiratory zone begins as the terminal bronchioles feed into the
respiratory bronchioles
the respiratory bronchioles lead into
alveolar ducts
a concavity in the left lung
molded to accomodate the heart
cardiac notch
the difference between the intrapulmonary and the intraplueral pressures
transpulmonary pressure
the alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basal laminae form the
respiratory membrane
an air-blood barrier that has gas on one side and blood flowing past on the other
respiratory membrane
stimulate a cough when present in the trachea or a sneeze when present in the nasal cavity
pulmonary irritant reflex
as the lungs recoil the stretch receptors become quiet and inspiration is initiated once again
inflation or heringBreuer reflex
normal respiratory rate and rhythm is
eupnea