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117 Cards in this Set

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Five fucntions of the respiratory system:
1.Providing an extensive area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood.
2.Moving air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs.
3.Protecting respiratory surfaces from dehydration, temperature changes, or other environmental variations and defending the respiratory system and other tissues form invasion by pathogens.
4.Producing sounds involved in speaking, singing, and nonverbal auditory communication.
5.Provding olfactory sensations to the central nervous system from the olfactory epithelium in the superior portions of the nasal cavity.
The respiratory system is divided into?
The upper respiratory system and lower respiratory system.
What does the upper respiratory system consist of?
Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx. These passageways filter, warm, and humidify the incoming air-protecting the more delicate surfaces of the lower respiratory system.
What does the lower respiratory system consist of?
Larynx(voice box), trachea(windpipe), bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli of the lungs that cool and dehumidify outgoing air.
What does the respiratory tract consist of?
Airways that carry air to and from the exchange surfaces of your lungs. Consists of a conducting portion and a respiratory portion. The conducting portions begins at the nasal cavity and extends through the pharynx and larynx and along the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles to terminal bronchioles. The respiratory portion includes the delicate respiratory bronchioles and the alveoli.
What is alveoli?
Air-filled pockets within the lungs where all gas exchange between air and blood occurs.
Respiratory Mucosa
The respiratory mucosa lines the conducting portion of the respiratory system. It consists of an epithelium and an underlying layer of areolar tissue. The lamina propria is the underlying layer of areolar tissue that supports the respiratory epithelium.
Respiratory Defense System
The delicate exchange surfaces of the respiratory system can be severely damaged if inhaled air becomes contaminated with debris or pathogens. Such contamination is prevented by a series of filtration mechnaisms that together make up the respiratory defense system.
What cells line the respiratory tract in the epithelium?
Globets cells and mucous glands in the lamina propria produce a sticky mucus that bathes exposed surfaces. In the nasal cavity, cilia sweep that mucus and any trapped debris or microorganisms toward the pharynx, where it will be swallowed and exposed to the acids and enzymes of the stomach.
Mucus Escalator
In the lower respiratory system, the cilia also beat toward the pharynx, moving a carpet of mucus in that direction and cleaning the respiratory surfaces. This process is often described as a mucus escalator.
Where does air enter at?
External nares or nostrils, which open into the nasal cavity.
What is the vestibule?
Is the space contained within the flexible tissues of the nose. It contains coarse hairs that extend across the enternal nares. Large airborne particles are trapped in these hairs.
What does the nasal septum do?
Divide the nasal cavity into left and right portions. The bony portion of the nasal septum is formed by the fusion of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the plate of the vomer. The anterior portion is formed of hyaline cartilage.
Superior, Middle, and Inferior Meatuses
To pass from the vestibule to the internal nares, air tends to flow between adjacent conchae, through the superior, middle, and inferior meatuses. These are narrow grooves rather than open passageways; the incoming air bounces off the conchal surfaces and churns like a stream flowing over rapids.
The turbulence serves a purpose in the meatuses:
As the air eddies and swirls, small airborne particles are likely to come into contact with the mucus that coats the lining of the nasal cavity. In addition to promoting filtration, warming, and humidifying incoming air.
Hard Palate, Soft Palate, Nasopharynx, and Internal Nares:
A bony hard palate, made up of portions of the maxillary and palatine bones, forms the floor of the nasal cavity and separates it from the oral cavity. Soft palate extends posterior to the hard palate, marking the boundary between the superior nasopharynx and the rest of the pharynx. The nasal cavity opens into the nasopharynx through a connections known as the internal nares.
Nasal Mucosa
The mucosa of the nasal cavity prepares the air you breathe for arrival at your lower respiratory system. As cool, dry air passes inward over the exposed surfaces of the nasal cavity, the warm epithelium radiates heat and the water in the mucus evaporates. Air moving form your nasal cavity to your lungs has been heated almost to body temperature, and it is nearly saturated with water vapor.
Air traveling down the respiratory tract does what?
As air moves out of the respiratory tract, it again passes across the epithelium of the nasal cavity. This air is warmer and more humid that the air that enters; it warms the nasal mucosa, and moisture condenses on the epithelial surfaces. Thus, breathing through your nose also helps prevent heat loss and water loss.
Where is the Pharynx located?
Is a chamber shared by the digestive and respiratory systmes. It extends between the internal nares and the entrances to the larynx and esophagus.
What is the Pharynx divided into?
1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx
Where is the nasopharynx located and whats separates it?
Is the superior portion of the pharynx. It is connected to the posterior portion of the nasal cavity through the internal nares and is separated from the oral cavity by the soft palate.
Where is the Oropharynx located?
Extends between the soft palate and the base of the tongue at the level of the hyoid bone. (food and air)
Where is the laryngopharynx located?
The inferior part of the pharynx, includes the portion of the pharynx between the hyoid bone and the entrance to the larynx and esophagus.
Inhaled air leaves the pharynx and enter the larynx through a narrow opening called the....
Glottis
What is the larynx?
Is a cartilaginous structure that surrounds and protects the glottis.
What is the epiglottis and what does it do?
Projects superior to the glottis and forms a lid over it. During swallowing, the larynx is elevated and the epiglottis folds back over the glottis, preventing the entry of both liquids and solid food into the respiratory tract.
What are the two pairs of folds span the glottis?
The inelastic vestibular folds and the more delicate vocal folds. The vocal folds, inferior to the vestibular folds, guard the entrance to the glottis.
Sound Production
Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds, producing sound. The pitch of the sound depends on the diameter, length, and tension of the vocal folds.
Trachea attaches to what?
The epithelium of the larynx is continuous with that of the trachea, or windpipe, a tough, flexible tube with a diameter of about 2.5 cm. It branches to form the right and left primary bronchi.
What is the mucosa of the trachea?
Resembles that of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. The submucosa, a thick layer of connective tissue, surrounds the mucosa. The submucosa contains mucous glands that communicate with the epithelial surface through a number of secretory ducts.
The trachea contains tracheal cartilages that serve what purpose?
Tracheal cartilages, which serve to stiffen the tracheal walls and protects the airway. They also prevent its collapse or overexpansion as pressure change in the respiratory system.
What is the shape of the tracheal cartilage and what purpose does it serve?
Tracheal cartilage is C-shaped. The closed portion of the C protects the anterior and lateral surfaces of the trachea. The open portion of the C faces posteriorly, toward the esophagus. Because these cartilages are not continous, the posterior tracheal wall can easily distort when you swallow, permitting large masses of food to pass through the esophagus.
What connects the ends of each tracheal cartilage?
An elastic ligament and the trachealis muscle, a band of smooth muscle, connec the ends of each tracheal cartilage.
The trachea branches within the mediastinum giving rise to?
Right and left primary bronchi.
What is the internal ridge that separates the two bronchi?
Carina. The primary bronchi have cartilaginous C shaped supporting rings. The right primary bronchus supplies the right lung, and the left supplies the left lung.
Before branching further, each primary bronchus travels to a groove along the medial surface of its lung. This groove is called the? The entire array is firmly anchored in meshwork of dense connective tissue called?
Hilus of the lung, also provides access for entry to pulmonary vessels and nerves.
This complex, the root of the lung, attaches to the mediastinum and fixes the positions of the major nerves, vessels, and lymphatic vessles.
How many lobes does the right lung have and the left lung have?
Three lobes
Two lobes
separated by deep fissures.
Cardiac Notch
The anterior and lateral surfaces of the lungs follow the inner contours of the rib cage. The concavity of the medial surface of the left lung is the cardiac notch, which conforms to the shape of the pericardium.
What forms the bronchial tree?
The primary bronchi and their branches form the bronchial tree. Because the left and right primary bronchi are outside the lungs. As the primary bronchi enter the lungs, they divide to form smaller passageways.
Secondary Bronchi
Each primary bronchus divides to form secondary bronchi. In each lung, one secondary bronchus goes to each lobe, so the right lung has three secondary bronchi and the left lung has two.
Tertiary Bronchi
In each lung, the secondary bronchi branch to form tertiary bronchi.
What branches off the tertiary bronchus and then what branches off that?
Each tertiary bronchus branches several times, giving rise to multiple bronchioles. These passageways branch futher into the finest conducting branches, called terminal bronchioles.
Pulmonary Lobules and Respiratory Bronchioles:
Each terminal bronchiole delivers air to a single pulmonary lobule in which the terminal bronchiole branches into respiratory bronchioles. The respiratory bronchioles deliver air to the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs.
What are the Respiratory bronchioles connected to?
Individual alveoli and to multiple alveoli along regions called alveolar ducts.
Where do alveolar ducts end?
Alveolar sacs, common chambers connected to multiple individual alveoli. An extensive network of capillaries is associated with each alveolus. The capillaries are surrounded by a network of elastic fibers, which help maintain the relative positions of the alveoli and the respiratory bronchioles. Recoil of these fibers during exhalation reduces the size of the alveoli and helps push air out of the lungs.
What is surfactant and what does it do?
An oily secretion containing a mixture of phospholipids and proteins. Is secreted onto the alveolar surfaces, where it forms a superficial coating over a thin layer of water.
It reduces surface tension in the liquid coating the alveolar surface.
Surface tension creates a barrier that keeps small objects from entering the water, but it also tends to collapse small bubbles. Without surfactant, the surface tension would be so high that the alveoli would collapse.
Blood supply to the lungs:
The capillaries supplied by the bronchial arteries provide oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of conducting passageways of your lungs. The venous blood from these bronchial capillaries ultimately flows into the pulmonary veins, bypassing the rest of the systemic circuit and diluting the oxygenated blood leaving the alveoli.
The term respiration refers to two integrated processes:
External respiration and internal respiration
What is external respiration?
External respiration includes all the processes involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body's interstitial fluids and the external environment. The goal of the external respiration, and the primary function of the respiratory system, is to meet the respiratory demands of cells.
What is internal respiration?
Is the absorption of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide by those cells.
What are the three steps involved in external respiration?
1. Pulmonary ventilation, or breathing
2. Gas diffusion across the respiratory membrane between alveolar air spaces and alveolar capillaries and across capillary walls between blood and other tissues.
3. The transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveolar capillaries and capillary beds in other tissues.
What is pulmonary ventilation?
Is the physical movement of air into and out of the respiratory tract to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation-movement of air into and out of alveoli.
What is atmospheric pressure?
Air moves into and out of the repiratory tract as the air pressure in the lungs cycles between below atmospheric pressure and above atmospheric pressure.
Gas pressure
In a gas, such as air, the molecules bounce around as independent entities. At normal atmospheric pressures, gas molecules are much farther apart than the molecules in a liquid, so the density of air is relatively low. The forces acting between gas molecules are minimal(the molecules are too far apart for mewk interactions to occur), so an applied pressure can push them closer together.
What happens in a sealed container of air at atmospheric pressure?
The pressure exerted by the enclosed gas results from the collision of gas molecules with the walls of the container. The greater the number of collisions, the higher the pressure. You can change the gas pressure within a sealed container by changing the volume of the container, thereby giving the gas molecules more or less room which to bounce around.
What is Boyle's Law?
An inverse relationship thus exists between the pressure and volume of a gas in a closed container: Gas pressure is inversely proportional to volume. That is, if you decrease the volume of a gas, its pressure will rise, if you increase the volume of a gas, its pressure will fall.
What direction does air flow?
Air will flow from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. This tendency for directed airflow, plus the pressue-volume relationship of Boyle's law, provides the basis for pulmonary ventilation.
A single respiratory cycle consists of:
Inspiration or inhalation and an expiration or exhalation. Involve changes in the volume of the lungs. These changes create pressure gradients that move air into and out of the respiratory tract.
The volume of the thoracic cavity changes when?
The diaphragm changes position or the rib cage moves.
As we start to breath what happens as air moves through the respiratory tract.
At the start of a breath, pressures inside and outside the thoracic cavity are identical, and no air moves into and out of the lungs. When the thoracic cavity enlarges, the pleural cavities and lungs expand to fill the additional space. This increase in volume lowers the pressure inside the lungs. Air now enter the respiratory passageways, because the pressure inside the lungs is lower than the atmospheric pressure. Air continues to enter the lungs until their volume stops increasing and the internal pressue is the same as the outside. When the thoracic cavity decrease in volume, pressures rise inside the lungs, forcing air out of the respiratory tract.
What is compliance?
The compliance of the lungs is an indication or their expandability. How readily your lungs will expand. The lower the compliance, the greater is the force required to fill and empty the lungs.
Factors affecting compliance:
1.The Connective-Tissue Structure of the Lungs. The loss of supporting tissues resulting from alveolar damage, as in emphysema, increases compliance.
Factors affecting compilance:
2. The Level of Surfactant Production. On exhalation, the collapse of alveoli as a result of inadequate surfactant, as in repiratory distress sydrome, reduces the lungs' compliance.
Factors affecting compilance:
3. The Mobility of the Thoracic Cage. Arthritis or other skeletal disorders that affect the articulations of the ribs or spinal column will also reduce compliance.
What is tidal volume?
Is the amount of air you move into or out of your lungs during a single respiratory cycle(inhalation and exhalation).
What is quiet breathing or eupnea?
Inhalation involves muscular contractions, but exhalation is a passive process. Inhalation usually involves the contraction of both the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles.
What happpens during diaphragmatic breathing or deep breathing?
Contraction of the diaphragm provides the necessary change in thoracic volume. Air is drawn into the lungs as the diaphragm contracts and is exhaled passively when the diaphragm relaxes.
What is costal breathing or shallow breathing?
The Thoracic volume changes because the rib cage alter its shape. Inhalation occurs when contractions of the external intercostal muscles elevate the ribs and enlarge the thoracic cavity. Exhalation occurs passively when these muscles relax.
What happens during forced breathing or hypernea?
Involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements. Forced breathing calls on the accessory muscles to assist with inhalation, and exhalation involves contraction of the internal intercostal muscles. At absolute maximum levels of forced breathing, the abdominal muscles are used in exhalation. Their contraction compresses the abdominal contents, pushing them up against the diaphragm and futher reducing the volume of the thoracic cavity.
What is your respiratory rate?
Is the number of breaths you take each minute. The normal respiratory rate of a resting adult ranges from 12 to 18 breaths a minute, roughly one for every four heartbeats.
How do you calculate the respiratory minute volume?
We can calculate the amount of air moved each minute, symbolized Ve, by multiplying the respiratory rate f by the tidal volume Vt. This is value is called the respiratory minute volume.
Ve= f x Vt
What does the respiratory minute volume measure?
Plumonary ventilation and provides an indication of how much air is moving into and out of the respiratory tract.
The volume of air in the conducting passages is known as?
The anatomic dead space (Vd)
What is alveolar ventilation?
Only some of the air you inhale reaches the alveolar exchange surfaces.
Alveolar ventilation,Va, is the amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute. The alveolar ventilation is less than the respiratory minute volume, because some of the air never reaches the alveoli, but remains in the dead space of the lungs.
Va= f x (Vt-Vd)(Subtracting the dead space from the tidal volume).
Why is gas arriving in the alveoli different from that of the surrounding atmosphere?
Inhaled air always mixes with used air in the conducting passageways(DEAD SPACE) on its way to the exchange surfaces. The air in alveoli thus contains less oxygen and more carbon dioxide than does atmospheric air.
Which is more important, alveolar ventilation and respiratory minute volume and why?
Alveolar ventilation rate is more important than the respiratory minute volume, because it determines the rate of delivery of oxygen to the alveoli.
The respiratory rate and the tidal volume together determine the alveolar ventilation rate:
For a given respiratory rate, increasing the tidal volume will increase the alveolar ventilation rate.
For a given tidal volume, increasing the respiratory rate will increase the alveolar ventilation rate.
Plumonary volumes include the following:
1. Resting tidal volume is the amount of air you move into or out of your lungs during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
Plumonary volumes include the following:
2. Expiratory reserve volume is the amount of air that you can voluntarily expel after you have completed a normal, quiet respiratory cycle.
Plumonary volumes include the following:
3. Residual volume is the amount of air that remains in your lungs even after a maximal exhalation.
Plumonary volumes include the following:
4. Inspiratory reserve volume is the amount of air that you can take in over and above tidal volume.
What does pulmonary ventilation ensure?
That your alveoli are supplied with oxygen and remove the carbon dioxide arriving from your bloodstream.
What are gas laws?
Determine the rate of oxygen and carbon dioxide diffusion across the respiratory membrane.
What is the air we breathe made up of?
Nitrogen are the most abundant, Oxygen is the second abundant, the rest consists of water molecules, with carbon dioxide contributing.
What is the Atmospheric pressue?
Atmospheric pressure, 760 mm Hg, represents the combined effects of collisions involving each type of molecule in air.
What is Daltion's Law?
Each of the gases contributes to the total pressure in proportion to its relative abundance.
What is a partial pressure of a gas?
of a gas is the pressure contibuted by a single gas in a mixture of gases. Prefix is P or p. All The partial pressure added together equal the total pressure exerted by the gas mixture.
Differnce in pressure affects what?
Which way gas molecules move from one place to another and also affect the movement of gas molecules into and out of solution.
What is Henry's law?
At a given temperature, the amount of a particular gas in solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas.
What happen when a gas under prssure contacts a liquid?
The pressure tends to force gas molecules into solution.
What happens at equilbrium?
At a given pressure, the number of dissolved gas molcules will rise until an equilbrium is established. At equilibrium, gas molecules diffuse out of the liquid as quickly as they enter it, so the total number of gas molecules in solution remains constant.
If partial presssure goes up or down what happens?
If partial presssure goes up, more gas molecules will go into solution; if partial pressue goes down, gas molecules will come out of solution.
When you open a can of soda you see Henry's Law:
The soda was put into the can under pressue, and the gas (carbon dioxide) is in solution. When you open the can, the pressue falls and the gas molecules begin coming out of solution.
The actual amount of a gas in solution at a given partial pressue and temperature depends on what?
The solubility of the gas in that paticular liquid. Carbon dioxide is highly soluble, oxygen is less soluble, and nitrogen has very limited solubility.
The gas laws apply to:
The diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen between a gas and a liquid.
Gas exchange at the respiratory membrane is effieient fo the following five reasons:
1. The difference in Partial Pressure acorss the Respiratory Membrane Are Substantial.
2. The Distances Involved in Gas Exchange Are Small.
3. The Gases Are Lipid Soluble. Both oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse readily through the surfactant layer and the alveolar and endothelial cell membranes.
4. The total Suface Area is Large.
5. Blood Flow and Airflow Are Coordinated.
Air reaching the alveoli
The incoming air mixes with air remaining in the alveoli from previous respiratory cycle. The alveolar air thus contains more carbon dioxide and less oxygen than does atmospheric air.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide have limited solubilities in blood plasma. The limited solubilities of these gases are a problem because?
Peripheral tissues need more oxygen and generate more carbon dioxide than the plasma can absorb and transport.
Peripheral tissues need more oxygen and generate more carbon dioxide than the plasma can absorb and transport. The problem is solved by:
Red blood cells, which remove dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide from plasma and bind them (in the case of oxygen) or use them to manufacture soluble compounds (in the case of carbon dioxide). Because these reaction remove dissolved gases from blood plasma, gases continue to diffuse into the blood, but never reach equilibrium.
The important thing about red blood cell reactions is that?
They are temporary and completely reversible. When plasma oxygen or carbon dioxide concentrations are high, the excess molecules are removed by red blood cells. When plasma concentrations are falling, the red blood cells release their stored reserves.
Oxyen transport:
Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly 20 ml of oxygen. Of this amount, only about 0.3 ml consists of oxygen molecules in solution. The rest of the oxygen molecules are bound to hemoglobin molecules, specifically to the iron ions in the center of the heme units.
Hemoglobin molecules consists of four globular protein subunits, each containing a heme unit. Which does what?
Each hemoglobin molecule can bind four molecules of oxygen, forming oxyhemoglobin. This is a reversible reaction.
What is Hemoglobin Saturation?
The percentage of heme units containing oxygen at any given moment.
Any changes in shape that occur can affect oxygen binding. Under normal conditions, the most important environmental factors affecting hemoglobin are:
1. The partial pressure of oxygen in blood
2. Blood pH
3. Temperature
4. Ongoing metabolic activity within red blood cells
What happens when partial pressue of oxygen increases and partial pressure of oxygen decreases?
If the partial pressue of oxygen increases, the saturation goes up and hemoglobin stores oxygen. If the partial pressure of oxygen decreases, hemoglobin releases oxygen into its surroundings.
What is the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve?
Is a graph that relates the saturation of hemoglobin to the partial pressure of oxygen. Determined in normal blood, with a pH of 7.4 and a temperature of 37 degrees.
In addition to consuming oxygen, active tissues generate what?
Acids that lower the pH of the intersitital fluid.
What is the Bohr effect?
When the pH drops, the shape of hemoglobin molecules changes. As a result of this change, the molecules release their oxygen reserves more readily, so the slope of the hemoglobin saturation curve changes. In other words, the saturation declines. This effect of pH on the hemoglobin saturation curve is called the Bohr effect. The increased oxygen release by hemoglobin in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide levels.
What is the primary compound responsible for the Bohr effect?
Carbon dioxide
When carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood, it rapidly diffuses into what?
red blood cells
What does the enzyme carbonic anhydrase do? What is the product of this reaction?
It catalyzes the reaction of carbon dioxide with water molecules.
CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H + HCO3
The product of this enzymatic reaction, H2CO3 is called carbonic acid, because it dissociates into a hydrogen ion (H+) and a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-).
The rate of carbonic acid formation depend on the amount of what in a solution?
Carbon dioxide, which depends on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide.
When the partial pressure of carbon dioxide rises:
The reaction proceeds from left to right and the rate of carbonic acid formation accelerates. The hydrogen ions that are generated diffuse out of the red blood cells, and the pH of the plasma drops.
When the partial pressure of carbon dioxide declines:
The reaction proceeds from right to left; hydrogen ions then diffuse into the red blood cells, so the pH of the plasma rises.
How does the change in temperature affect the slope of the hemoglobin saturation curve?
As temperature rises, hemoglobin releases more oxygen; as temperature delcines, hemoglobin holds oxygen more tightly.
Carbon dioxide is generated by what?
Aerboic metabolism in peripheral tissues.
After entering the bloodstream, a CO2 molecule is?
1. Converted to a molecule of carbonic acid
2. Bound to the protein poriton of hemoglobin molecules within red blood cells
3. Or dissovled in plasma